Estrategias de prevención en las infecciones asociadas a catéter en recién nacidos: revisión sistemática de la literatura

Source: OAI


Las infecciones asociadas a catéter son la primera causa de infección nosocomial descrita en las unidades de cuidado crítico y un control de estas conlleva a disminuir la morbilidad y mortalidad en estos pacientes, tiempos de estancia hospitalaria y aliviar el costo de una hospitalización prolongada para su familia y la sociedad. Objetivo : evaluar la evidencia en las estrategias de prevención de las infecciones asociadas a catéter en recién nacidos. Materiales y métodos : se realizó una búsqueda sistemática en: Cochrane, Pubmed, desde 1995 hasta Abril de 2009. Se seleccionaron revisiones sistmáticas, ensayos clínicos y estudios observacionales. Se utilizó le metodología SIGN para la calificación de los estudios y evaluar el grado de recomendación basada en la evidencia. Resultados : se evaluaron 13 estudios que cumplían con los criterios de inclusión y que respondían a 6 preguntas sobre las diferentes estrategias para la prevención de infecciones asociadas a catéter en recién nacidos. La heterogenicidad de las investigaciones no permitió la realización de metananálisis. Conclusiones : la implementación de un sistema de control y vigilancia en el seguimiento de todos los procesos con mayor atención en todas las medidas de colocación, cuidado y manejo de los catéteres centrales son de forma integral la mejor estrategia en la prevención de infecciones asociadas a catéter en recién nacidos. Vascular catheters are consider fundamental in Neonatal Intensive Care Units and it's insertion is the most common procedure. 1 Blood related catheter infections (BRCI) are the first nosocomial infection related diseases all purposes to diminished them reduces mobility and mortality, hospitalization and relieves costs for long hospital stays for families and society. 2 There has been many control measures but there are not consensus based on evidence to give general recommendations on this age group. Objective Evaluate evidence on prevention measures for BRCI in newborns. Materials and Methods A systematic search was made at: Cochrane, Pubmed, from 1995 to April 2009. Systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, case control and cohort studies were analyzed by SIGN evidence methodology. Results Thirteen studies met inclusion criteria and answered to 6 questions about different prevention strategies for blood catheter related infections in newborns. Studies heterogeneity didn't allow to make methanalysis. Conclusions Implementation of a surveillance protocol in all process with handling catheters seems to be the best strategy on preventing BRCI in newborns.

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