Decrease in the rate of secondary amyloidosis in Turkish children with FMF: are we doing better?
ABSTRACT Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most common autoinflammatory disease in the world. The most serious complication of FMF is the development of secondary amyloidosis. Besides genetic factors, environment has been implicated in the development of this complication. The main objective of this study is to analyze whether there has been a substantial decrease of secondary amyloidosis in Turkey and possible effective factors. For this purpose, clinical features of the patients diagnosed with secondary amyloidosis between the years 1978 and 1990 were compared with those diagnosed between 2000 and 2009. Severity scores were determined by the use of a scoring system modified for children. Median ages of the group diagnosed between 1978 and 1990 (n = 115; 12.1% among a total of 947 renal biopsies) and diagnosed after 2000 (n = 19; 2% among a total of 974 renal biopsies) were 12 and 13 years, respectively. There were no significant differences between the two patient groups according to gender, age, age of onset, disease duration, and disease severity. There was, however, a clear decrease in the percentage of biopsies with secondary amyloidosis from 12.1% (1978-1990) to 2% (after 2000; p < 0.001). Our results have shown that there has been a significant decrease in the rate of secondary amyloidosis in Turkey. The main reason for this decrease is better medical care with increased awareness and treatment of the disease. However, we suggest that the improvement of infectious milieu may possibly have had a positive effect on the course of this monogenic disease, since inflammatory pathways related to innate immunity are deregulated.
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ABSTRACT: The clinical and laboratory findings of 35 children with familial Mediterranean fever who developed amyloidosis are described. The types, frequency, and severity of attacks of familial Mediterranean fever in these children were no different from patients with this disease without amyloidosis. Although amyloid was widely deposited in all tissues, the major clinical manifestations of the amyloidosis were proteinuria, the nephrotic syndrome, and progressive renal failure. Only 20% of the patients were alive 5 years after the first appearance of proteinuria.Archives of Disease in Childhood 07/1981; 56(6):464-7. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The clinical profile in familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), including its major manifestation, amyloidosis, is influenced by MEFV allelic heterogeneity and other genetic and/or environmental factors. In this study, we analyzed the contribution of genotypes at the MEFV and SAA1 loci to disease severity and to the development of amyloidosis, and further defined the factors affecting the clinical profile of FMF. We investigated a sample of 277 FMF patients (154 men and 123 women), including 62 patients with nephropathic amyloidosis, in whom both FMF alleles had been identified. A detailed chart review, interview, and physical examination were undertaken to determine the patients' demographic characteristics, medical history, clinical manifestations, and treatment. The disease severity score was calculated from the Tel-Hashomer key. Genotypes at the SAA1 locus (isoforms alpha, beta, and gamma) were determined in all patients. The SAA1 13C/T polymorphism of the SAA1 promotor was analyzed in a subset of cases. The male:female ratio (154:123, or 1.3) was higher among patients with amyloidosis (40:22, or 1.8) compared with patients without amyloidosis (114:101, or 1.1). Logistic regression analysis showed that homozygosity for the M694V allele (odds ratio [OR] 4.27, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 2.01-9.07), the presence of the SAAalpha/alpha genotype (OR 2.99, 95% CI 1.47-6.09), the occurrence of arthritis attacks (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.17-5.06), and male sex (OR 1.73, 95% CI 0.90-3.33) were significantly and independently associated with renal amyloidosis. Disease severity was mainly influenced by MEFV mutations and was not associated with genotypes at the SAA1 locus. The SAA1 13T allele was rare, being associated mainly with the SAA gamma isoform, and not related to renal amyloidosis. Overall, disease severity and the development of amyloidosis in FMF are differentially affected by genetic variations within and outside the MEFV gene.Arthritis & Rheumatism 05/2003; 48(4):1149-55. · 7.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), the prototype of autoinflammatory disorders, is caused by recessive mutations in the MEFV gene. Some FMF patients develop renal amyloidosis, a potentially fatal condition. This complication has mainly been associated with the M694V mutation, although the different study designs, small numbers of patients, and/or evaluation of few or no covariables calls this association into question. The aim of this study was to examine the controversial issue of amyloidosis susceptibility in FMF by determining the relative contributions of MEFV and numerous epidemiologic factors to the risk of renal amyloidosis. Online questionnaires were completed at the MetaFMF database by patients at 35 centers in 14 countries. Using a standardized mode of data collection, we retrieved crude initial data from over half of the genetically confirmed FMF patients referred worldwide until May 2003 (2,482 cases, including 260 patients who developed renal amyloidosis). Amyloid nephropathy was present in 11.4% of the cases. In the total study population, country of recruitment was the leading risk factor for this manifestation (odds ratio 3.2 [95% confidence interval 1.8-5.9]), followed by M694V homozygosity, proband status, and disease duration. Differing results were found when countries were stratified. Country of recruitment, rather than MEFV genotype, is the key risk factor for renal amyloidosis in FMF. This risk, which parallels infant mortality rates, indicates a possible environmental origin of amyloidosis susceptibility. The patient's country should be considered in addition to MEFV genotype as an indication for prophylactic colchicine, a treatment suggested for asymptomatic individuals who are incidentally discovered to be M694V homozygous.Arthritis & Rheumatism 06/2007; 56(5):1706-12. · 7.48 Impact Factor