Konstantinidou V, Covas MI, Muñoz-Aguayo D, Khymenets O, de la Torre R, Saez G, et al. In vivo nutrigenomic effects of virgen olive oil polyphenols within the frame of the Mediterranean diet: a randomized controlled trial. FASEB

Cardiovascular Risk and Nutrition Research Group, Institut Municipal d'Investigació Mèdica (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Centro de Investigación Biomédica Eu Red (CIBER) de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Barcelona, Spain.
The FASEB Journal (Impact Factor: 5.04). 02/2010; 24(7):2546-57. DOI: 10.1096/fj.09-148452
Source: PubMed


The aim of the study was to assess whether benefits associated with the traditional Mediterranean diet (TMD) and virgin olive oil (VOO) consumption could be mediated through changes in the expression of atherosclerosis-related genes. A randomized, parallel, controlled clinical trial in healthy volunteers (n=90) aged 20 to 50 yr was performed. Three-month intervention groups were as follows: 1) TMD with VOO (TMD+VOO), 2) TMD with washed virgin olive oil (TMD+WOO), and 3) control with participants' habitual diet. WOO was similar to VOO, but with a lower polyphenol content (55 vs. 328 mg/kg, respectively). TMD consumption decreased plasma oxidative and inflammatory status and the gene expression related with both inflammation [INF-gamma (INFgamma), Rho GTPase-activating protein15 (ARHGAP15), and interleukin-7 receptor (IL7R)] and oxidative stress [adrenergic beta(2)-receptor (ADRB2) and polymerase (DNA-directed) kappa (POLK)] in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. All effects, with the exception of the decrease in POLK expression, were particularly observed when VOO, rich in polyphenols, was present in the TMD dietary pattern. Our results indicate a significant role of olive oil polyphenols in the down-regulation of proatherogenic genes in the context of a TMD. In addition, the benefits associated with a TMD and olive oil polyphenol consumption on cardiovascular risk can be mediated through nutrigenomic effects.

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    • "Hence, it is possible that mechanisms may rely on vascular pathways, although this interpretation remains speculative. Moreover, the beneficial effect of the MeDi on vascular risk factors (e.g., lipid profile, blood pressure, insulin resistance, adiposity, inflammation, and oxidative stress [42] [43] [44] [45] [46] [47]) is well established. So overall, there is a strong biological plausibility for a role of the MeDi in preserving brain vascular health. "
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    ABSTRACT: The Mediterranean diet (MeDi) has been related to a lower risk of Alzheimer's disease; yet, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We hypothesized that protection against neurodegeneration would translate into higher gray matter volumes, whereas a specific association with preserved white matter microstructure would suggest alternative mechanisms (e.g., vascular pathways). We included 146 participants from the Bordeaux Three-City study nondemented when they completed a dietary questionnaire and who underwent a 3-T magnetic resonance imaging at an average of 9 years later, including diffusion tensor imaging. In multivariate voxel-by-voxel analyses, adherence to the MeDi was significantly associated with preserved white matter microstructure in extensive areas, a gain in structural connectivity that was related to strong cognitive benefits. In contrast, we found no relation with gray matter volumes. The MeDi appears to benefit brain health through preservation of structural connectivity. Potential mediation by a favorable impact on brain vasculature deserves further research. Copyright © 2015 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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    • "In a separate controlled clinical trial of 90 healthy volunteers, a separate group measured the effects of a traditional MD with virgin olive oil or with washed olive oil (i.e., reduced phenolic content). Compared with a control diet, both of the MDs decreased oxidative and inflammatory plasma markers and affected the expression of genes involved in inflammation and oxidative stress; enhanced effects were seen in the high polyphenol group, and the authors concluded that the olive oil polyphenols had a significant role in the downregulation of proatherogenic genes in the context of a traditional Mediterranean diet [45] "

    The Mediterranean Diet: An Evidence-Based Approach, Edited by Victor R. Preedy, Ronald Ross Watson, 11/2014: chapter 10: pages 105-113; Elsevier., ISBN: 13: 9780124078499
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    • "The ways in which these bacteria influence the cholesterol metabolism are not fully understood and comprise more than one mechanism (Caesar et al. 2010). Consumption of olive oil also influence gene expression related to inflammation, oxidative stress (Konstantinidou et al. 2010) and obesity (Drira et al. 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Olive oil is an important lipid source of the Mediterranean diet which has been associated with lower incidence of cardiovascular diseases whereas olive pomace (OP), a natural by-product of olive oil production, has been found to contain micro constituents with antioxidant, antithrombotic and antiatherogenic activities. The evaluation of OP in order to produce sustainable functional food and neutraceuticals has been the subject of research over the last years. All recent data, focusing on the anti-inflammatory properties of olive oil derived from olive (Olea europaea) and OP along with the potential production of sustainable functional food and neutraceuticals, are presented in this review.
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