Functional endothelial progenitor cells derived from adipose tissue show beneficial effect on cell therapy of traumatic brain injury
ABSTRACT Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are responsible for postnatal vasculogenesis in physiological and pathological neovascularization. Adipose tissue (AT) is an abundant source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which have multipotent differentiation ability. We successfully derived EPCs from AT, which maintained a strong proliferative capacity and demonstrated the characteristic endothelial function of uptaking of acetylated low-density lipoprotein. They formed tube-like structures in vitro. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene expression in EPCs was similar to that in mature endothelial cells. Transplantation of EPCs derived from AT after the acute phase was applied in rats with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Transplanted EPCs participated in the neovascularization of injured brain. Improving functional recovery, reducement of deficiency volume of brain, host astrogliosis and inflammation were found. These results suggest that adult AT derived stem cells can be induced to functional EPCs and have beneficial effect on cell therapy.
SourceAvailable from: Wolfgang Holnthoner[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Human endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) play an important role in regenerative medicine and contribute to neovascularization on vessel injury. They are usually enriched from peripheral blood, cord blood and bone marrow. In human fat tissue, EPC are rare and their isolation remains a challenge. Fat tissue was prepared by collagenase digestion, and the expression of specific marker proteins was evaluated by flow cytometry in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF). For enrichment, magnetic cell sorting was performed with the use of CD133 microbeads and EPC were cultured until colonies appeared. A second purification was performed with CD34; additional isolation steps were performed with the use of a combination of CD34 and CD31 microbeads. Enriched cells were investigated by flow cytometry for the expression of endothelial specific markers, by Matrigel assay and by the uptake of acetylated low-density lipoprotein. The expression pattern confirmed the heterogeneous nature of the SVF, with rare numbers of CD133+ detectable. EPC gained from the SVF by magnetic enrichment showed cobblestone morphology of outgrowth endothelial cells and expressed the specific markers CD31, CD144, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)R2, CD146, CD73 and CD105. Functional integrity was confirmed by uptake of acetylated low-density lipoprotein and the formation of tube-like structures on Matrigel. Rare EPC can be enriched from human fat tissue by magnetic cell sorting with the use of a combination of microbeads directed against CD133, an early EPC marker, CD34, a stem cell marker, and CD31, a typical marker for endothelial cells. In culture, they differentiate into EC and hence could have the potential to contribute to neovascularization in regenerative medicine.Cytotherapy 11/2013; 15(11):1426-1435. DOI:10.1016/j.jcyt.2013.06.018 · 3.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: ObjectiveTBI causes localized cerebral ischemia that, in turn, is accompanied by both changes in BBB permeability and recruitment of CD34(+) cells to the injured tissue. However, it remains unknown whether CD34(+) cell recruitment is linked to BBB permeability. This study is a preliminary investigation into possible correlations between CD34(+) cell recruitment and BBB permeability following TBI in a rat model. Methods Male SD rats were subjected to mild fluid percussion injury. BBB permeability was assessed by measuring extrinsic EB dye extravasation and endogenous EBA expression at days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 12 post injury. The number of CD34(+) cells in the damaged tissue was analyzed by immunohistochemistry at each time point. ResultsEB dye extravasation reached a peak at day 3 following TBI, while EBA expression displayed the reverse profile. Accumulation of CD34(+) cells in injured brain tissue was evident at five days post injury. It revealed a negative linear correlation between CD34(+) cell and BBB permeability. Conclusions The negative linear correlation between CD34(+) cell recruitment and BBB permeability following TBI provides a support for further study of CD34(+) cell transplantation for BBB repair after TBI.Microcirculation (New York, N.Y.: 1994) 06/2014; 21(8). DOI:10.1111/micc.12150 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors exhibit motor and cognitive symptoms from the primary injury that can become aggravated over time because of secondary cell death. In the present in vivo study, we examined the beneficial effects of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) in a controlled cortical impact model of mild TBI using young (6 months) and aged (20 months) F344 rats. Animals were transplanted intravenously with 4 × 10(6) hADSCs (Tx), conditioned media (CM), or vehicle (unconditioned media) at 3 h after TBI. Significant amelioration of motor and cognitive functions was revealed in young, but not aged, Tx and CM groups. Fluorescent imaging in vivo and ex vivo revealed 1,1' dioactadecyl-3-3-3',3'-tetramethylindotricarbocyanine iodide-labeled hADSCs in peripheral organs and brain after TBI. Spatiotemporal deposition of hADSCs differed between young and aged rats, most notably reduced migration to the aged spleen. Significant reduction in cortical damage and hippocampal cell loss was observed in both Tx and CM groups in young rats, whereas less neuroprotection was detected in the aged rats and mainly in the Tx group but not the CM group. CM harvested from hADSCs with silencing of either NEAT1 (nuclear enriched abundant transcript 1) or MALAT1 (metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1), long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) known to play a role in gene expression, lost the efficacy in our model. Altogether, hADSCs are promising therapeutic cells for TBI, and lncRNAs in the secretome is an important mechanism of cell therapy. Furthermore, hADSCs showed reduced efficacy in aged rats, which may in part result from decreased homing of the cells to the spleen.The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 01/2014; 34(1):313-26. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2425-13.2014 · 6.75 Impact Factor