Article

Cholesterol trafficking is required for mTOR activation in endothelial cells

Department of Pharmacology and Oncology, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.81). 02/2010; 107(10):4764-9. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0910872107
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) constitutes a nodal point of a signaling network that regulates cell growth and proliferation in response to various environmental cues ranging from growth factor stimulation to nutrients to stress. Whether mTOR is also affected by cholesterol homeostasis, however, has remained unknown. We report that blockade of cholesterol trafficking through lysosome by a newly identified inhibitor of angiogenesis, itraconazole, leads to inhibition of mTOR activity in endothelial cells. Inhibition of mTOR by itraconazole but not rapamycin can be partially restored by extracellular cholesterol delivered by cyclodextrin. Moreover, other known inhibitors of endosomal/lysosomal cholesterol trafficking as well as siRNA knockdown of Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) 1 and NPC2 also cause inhibition of mTOR in endothelial cells. In addition, both the accumulation of cholesterol in the lysosome and inhibition of mTOR caused by itraconazole can be reversed by thapsigarin. These observations suggest that mTOR is likely to be involved in sensing membrane sterol concentrations in endothelial cells, and the cholesterol trafficking pathway is a promising target for the discovery of inhibitors of angiogenesis.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
93 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aberrant cholesterol homeostasis and biosynthesis has been observed in different tumour types. This paper investigates the role of the post-squalenic enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis, oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC), in regulating tumour angiogenesis and metastasis dissemination in mouse models of cancer. We showed that Ro 48-8071, a selective inhibitor of OSC, reduced vascular density and increased pericyte coverage, with a consequent inhibition of tumour growth in a spontaneous mouse model of pancreatic tumour (RIP-Tag2) and two metastatic mouse models of human colon carcinoma (HCT116) and pancreatic adenocarcinoma (HPAF-II). Remarkably, the inhibition of OSC hampered metastasis formation in HCT116 and HPAF-II models. Ro 48-8071 induced tumour vessel normalization and enhanced the anti-tumoral and anti-metastatic effects of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in HCT116 mice. Ro 48-8071 exerted a strong anti-angiogenic activity by impairing endothelial cell adhesion and migration, and by blocking vessel formation in angiogenesis assays. OSC inhibition specifically interfered with the PI3K pathway. According to in vitro results, Ro 48-8071 specifically inhibited Akt phosphorylation in both cancer cells and tumour vasculature in all treated models. Thus, our results unveil a crucial role of OSC in the regulation of cancer progression and tumour angiogenesis, and indicate Ro 48-8071 as a potential novel anti-angiogenic and anti-metastatic drug
    Scientific Reports 03/2015; 5(9054):1-12. · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aberrant cholesterol homeostasis and biosynthesis has been observed in different tumour types. This paper investigates the role of the post-squalenic enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis, oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC), in regulating tumour angiogenesis and metastasis dissemination in mouse models of cancer. We showed that Ro 48-8071, a selective inhibitor of OSC, reduced vascular density and increased pericyte coverage, with a consequent inhibition of tumour growth in a spontaneous mouse model of pancreatic tumour (RIP-Tag2) and two metastatic mouse models of human colon carcinoma (HCT116) and pancreatic adenocarcinoma (HPAF-II). Remarkably, the inhibition of OSC hampered metastasis formation in HCT116 and HPAF-II models. Ro 48-8071 induced tumour vessel normalization and enhanced the anti-tumoral and anti-metastatic effects of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in HCT116 mice. Ro 48-8071 exerted a strong anti-angiogenic activity by impairing endothelial cell adhesion and migration, and by blocking vessel formation in angiogenesis assays. OSC inhibition specifically interfered with the PI3K pathway. According to in vitro results, Ro 48-8071 specifically inhibited Akt phosphorylation in both cancer cells and tumour vasculature in all treated models. Thus, our results unveil a crucial role of OSC in the regulation of cancer progression and tumour angiogenesis, and indicate Ro 48-8071 as a potential novel anti-angiogenic and anti-metastatic drug.
    Scientific Reports 03/2015; 5(9054):1-12. DOI:10.1038/srep09054 · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Itraconazole (ITZ) is a well-known antifungal agent that also has anticancer activity. In this study, we identify ITZ as a broad-spectrum inhibitor of enteroviruses (e.g., poliovirus, coxsackievirus, enterovirus-71, rhinovirus). We demonstrate that ITZ inhibits viral RNA replication by targeting oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) and OSBP-related protein 4 (ORP4). Consistently, OSW-1, a specific OSBP/ORP4 antagonist, also inhibits enterovirus replication. Knockdown of OSBP inhibits virus replication, whereas overexpression of OSBP or ORP4 counteracts the antiviral effects of ITZ and OSW-1. ITZ binds OSBP and inhibits its function, i.e., shuttling of cholesterol and phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate between membranes, thereby likely perturbing the virus-induced membrane alterations essential for viral replication organelle formation. ITZ also inhibits hepatitis C virus replication, which also relies on OSBP. Together, these data implicate OSBP/ORP4 as molecular targets of ITZ and point to an essential role of OSBP/ORP4-mediated lipid exchange in virus replication that can be targeted by antiviral drugs. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Preview

Download
0 Downloads
Available from