Reactive oxygen species level defines two functionally distinctive stages of inflammatory dendritic cell development from mouse bone marrow.
ABSTRACT Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in various physiological activities. However, their role in dendritic cell (DC) activation and generation has not been investigated. Using the bone marrow-derived GM-CSF-induced ex vivo DC model, we characterize how induction of ROS correlates with inflammatory DC functionality and expansion. We describe that the functionality of GM-CSF-induced DCs is distinct in two developmental stages. Whereas division of DC-committed hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) neared completion by day 6, the level of ROS soared after day 4. Day 3 ROS(lo) DCs were highly responsive to TLR stimuli such as LPS and zymosan by rapid upregulation of CD80, CD86, and MHC class II, in contrast to the low response of day 6 ROS(hi) DCs. ROS(hi) DCs could not initiate and sustain a significant level of NF-kappaB phosphorylation in response to LPS and zymosan, although demonstrating hyperactivation of p38 MAPK by LPS, in a fashion disparate to ROS(lo) DCs. ROS(lo) DCs stimulated a higher level of allogeneic and OVA-specific T cell proliferative responses, although ROS(hi) DCs were much more proficient in processing OVA. In response to pathogenic stimuli, ROS(hi) DCs also demonstrated rapid cellular adhesion and H(2)O(2) release, indicating their role in immediate microbial targeting. Moreover, HPC expansion and DC generation were dependent on the surge of ROS in an NADPH oxidase-independent manner. These findings point to the potential role of cellular ROS in mediating functionality and development of DCs from HPCs during inflammation.
Article: Modulation of hydrogen peroxide production in cellular systems by low level magnetic fields.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and an altered redox status have long been observed in cancer cells, suggesting that ROS might be involved in the development of these cells. However, recent studies suggest that inducing an excess of ROS in cancer cells can be exploited for therapeutic benefits. Cancer cells in advanced stage tumors frequently exhibit multiple genetic alterations and high oxidative stress, suggesting that it might be possible to preferentially modulate the development of these cells by controlling their ROS production. Low levels of ROS are also important for the development and survival of normal cells. In this manuscript, we present data on the influence of the suppression of the Earth's magnetic field (low level magnetic fields or LLF) which magnitudes range from 0.2 µT to 2 µT on the modulation of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in human fibrosarcoma cancer cell line HT1080, pancreatic AsPC-1 cancer cell line, and bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAEC) exposed to geomagnetic field (control; 45 µT-60 µT). Reduction of the Earth's magnetic field suppressed H(2)O(2) production in cancer cells and PAEC. The addition of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic MnTBAP inhibited the magnetic field effect. Modulating ROS production by magnetic fields may open new venues of biomedical research and therapeutic strategies.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(8):e22753. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: NADPH oxidase-2 derived ROS dictates murine DC cytokine-mediated cell fate decisions during CD4 T helper-cell commitment.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: NADPH oxidase-2 (Nox2)/gp91(phox) and p47(phox) deficient mice are prone to hyper-inflammatory responses suggesting a paradoxical role for Nox2-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) as anti-inflammatory mediators. The molecular basis for this mode of control remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that IFNγ/LPS matured p47(phox-/-)-ROS deficient mouse dendritic cells (DC) secrete more IL-12p70 than similarly treated wild type DC, and in an in vitro co-culture model IFNγ/LPS matured p47(phox-/-) DC bias more ovalbumin-specific CD4(+) T lymphocytes toward a Th1 phenotype than wild type (WT) DC through a ROS-dependent mechanism linking IL-12p70 expression to regulation of p38-MAPK activation. The Nox2-dependent ROS production in DC negatively regulates proinflammatory IL-12 expression in DC by constraining p38-MAPK activity. Increasing endogenous H(2)O(2) attenuates p38-MAPK activity in IFNγ/LPS stimulated WT and p47(phox-/-) DC, which suggests that endogenous Nox 2-derived ROS functions as a secondary messenger in the activated p38-MAPK signaling pathway during IL-12 expression. These findings indicate that ROS, generated endogenously by innate and adaptive immune cells, can function as important secondary messengers that can regulate cytokine production and immune cell cross-talk to control during the inflammatory response.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(12):e28198. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: End-point effector stress mediators in neuroimmune interactions: their role in immune system homeostasis and autoimmune pathology.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Much evidence has identified a direct anatomical and functional link between the brain and the immune system, with glucocorticoids (GCs), catecholamines (CAs), and neuropeptide Y (NPY) as its end-point mediators. This suggests the important role of these mediators in immune system homeostasis and the pathogenesis of inflammatory autoimmune diseases. However, although it is clear that these mediators can modulate lymphocyte maturation and the activity of distinct immune cell types, their putative role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease is not yet completely understood. We have contributed to this field by discovering the influence of CAs and GCs on fine-tuning thymocyte negative selection and, in particular, by pointing to the putative CA-mediated mechanisms underlying this influence. Furthermore, we have shown that CAs are implicated in the regulation of regulatory T-cell development in the thymus. Moreover, our investigations related to macrophage biology emphasize the complex interaction between GCs, CAs and NPY in the modulation of macrophage functions and their putative significance for the pathogenesis of autoimmune inflammatory diseases.Immunologic Research 03/2012; 52(1-2):64-80. · 3.03 Impact Factor