Childhood Obesity and Survival After In-Hospital Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
ABSTRACT We hypothesized that childhood obesity would be associated with decreased likelihood of survival to hospital discharge after in-hospital, pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).
We reviewed 1477 consecutive, pediatric, CPR index events (defined as the first CPR event during a hospitalization in that facility for a patient <18 years of age) reported to the American Heart Association National Registry of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation between January 2000 and July 2004. The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge. A total of 1268 index subjects (86%) with complete registry data were included for analysis. Children were classified as obese (> or =95th weight-for-length percentile if <2 years of age or > or =95th BMI-for-age percentile if > or =2 years of age) or underweight (<5th weight-for-length percentile if <2 years of age or <5th BMI-for-age percentile if > or =2 years of age), with adjustment for gender.
Obesity was noted for 213 (17%) of 1268 subjects and underweight for 571 (45%) of 1268 subjects. Obesity was more likely to be associated with male gender, noncardiac medical illness, and cancer and inversely associated with heart failure. Underweight was more likely to be associated with male gender, cardiac surgery, and prematurity and inversely associated with age and cancer. Self-reported, process-of-care, CPR quality was generally worse for obese children. With adjustment for important potential confounding factors, obesity was independently associated with worse odds of event survival (adjusted odds ratio: 0.58 [95% confidence interval: 0.35-0.76]) and survival to hospital discharge (adjusted odds ratio: 0.62 [95% confidence interval: 0.38-0.93]) after in-hospital, pediatric CPR. Underweight was not associated with worse outcomes.
Childhood obesity is associated with a lower rate of survival to hospital discharge after in-hospital, pediatric CPR.
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ABSTRACT: We report pulsed and continuous-wave operation of an optically-pumped III-V VCSEL emitting at λ≈2.9 μm. The laser consists of a 12-1/2 period GaSb/AlAsSb distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) bottom mirror, a 79-period type-II “W” quantum well active region [InAs/GaSb/InAs/AlSb] and a dielectric DBR top mirror. The reflection plateaus of the top and bottom mirror are centered at λ=3.0 μm, and the top mirror is also optimized for >80% transmission at 1.064 μm. The cavity containing the active region is nominally one wavelength long. The first results demonstrate the feasibility of diode-pumped mid-IR VCSELs with low thresholds at high temperatures
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