Frequency of soup intake and amount of dietary fiber intake are inversely associated with plasma leptin concentrations in Japanese adults.
ABSTRACT Previous studies have shown that the intake of soup negatively correlates with the body mass index (BMI), suggesting that soup intake reduces the risk of obesity. In this study, to clarify the association of the intake of soup and various nutrients with plasma leptin concentration, a cross-sectional study on 504 Japanese adults aged 20-76 years (103 men and 401 women) was performed. The intake of soup and various nutrients was investigated by food frequency questionnaires. Plasma leptin concentration was measured in fasting blood by radioimmunoassay. The correlation was analyzed by multiple regression analysis. The average frequency of soup intake was 7.6 times/week. The average plasma leptin concentration was 7.76 ng/ml. After adjusting the confounding factors, the frequency of soup intake has a significant inverse association with plasma leptin concentration. Among the macronutrients, only dietary fiber intake negatively correlated with plasma leptin concentration after the adjustment for potential confounding factors. These results suggest that the intakes of soup and dietary fiber were negatively correlated with plasma leptin concentration in Japanese adults.
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ABSTRACT: The radionuclides released from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in 2011 pose a health risk. In this study, we estimated the 1st-year average doses resulting from the intake of iodine 131 (131I) and cesium 134 and 137 (134Cs and 137Cs) in drinking water and food ingested by citizens of Fukushima City (∼50 km from the nuclear power plant; outside the evacuation zone), Tokyo (∼230 km), and Osaka (∼580 km) after the accident. For citizens in Fukushima City, we considered two scenarios: Case 1, citizens consumed vegetables bought from markets; Case 2, citizens consumed vegetables grown locally (conservative scenario). The estimated effective doses of 134Cs and 137Cs agreed well with those estimated through market basket and food-duplicate surveys. The average thyroid equivalent doses due to ingestion of 131I for adults were 840 µSv (Case 1) and 2700 µSv (Case 2) in Fukushima City, 370 µSv in Tokyo, and 16 µSv in Osaka. The average effective doses due to 134Cs and 137Cs were 19, 120, 6.1, and 1.9 µSv, respectively. The doses estimated in this study were much lower than values reported by the World Health Organization and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, whose assessments lacked validation and full consideration of regional trade in foods, highlighting the importance of including regional trade. The 95th percentile effective doses were 2-3 times the average values. Lifetime attributable risks (LARs) of thyroid cancers due to ingestion were 2.3-39×10-6 (Case 1) and 10-98×10-6 (Case 2) in Fukushima City, 0.95-14×10-6 in Tokyo, and 0.11-1.3×10-6 in Osaka. The contributions of LARs of thyroid cancers due to ingestion were 7.5%-12% of all exposure (Case 1) and 12%-30% (Case 2) in Fukushima City.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(11):e112791. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Leptin regulates energy homeostasis and immune and metabolic functions. Highly elevated leptin concentrations during pregnancy may be associated with aberrations in maternal metabolism and long-term health consequences both in women and children. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether dietary counselling, probiotic supplementation, maternal characteristics or dietary intake during pregnancy has an impact on serum leptin concentrations in women, cord blood or in children. A total of 256 pregnant women were randomised to a control group (n 85) or to receive dietary counselling with probiotics (n 85) or placebo (n 86). Dietary counselling aimed at affecting the type of fat used and to increase the amount of fibre in the women's diet. Women's dietary intake and serum leptin concentrations were analysed at the first and third trimesters of pregnancy and at 1 month postpartum. Furthermore, leptin concentrations were measured from the cord blood and from children's serum at 1 and 6 months of age. Weight status and dietary composition were the key determinants of leptin concentrations. Specifically, high dietary fibre and low SFA intakes were related to low serum leptin concentrations in women. Female sex and birth weight were associated with higher infant leptin, whereas cord blood leptin was additionally affected by maternal leptin concentration and protein intake. Probiotics or dietary counselling did not affect leptin concentrations. Weight control to recommended levels and modification of diet towards higher fibre and lower SFA intakes during pregnancy may through leptin concentrations provide health benefits to both women and children.The British journal of nutrition 02/2013; · 3.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate the independent associations between serum leptin concentration and dietary patterns in a Chinese population. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Data obtained from the 2006 wave of the China Health and Nutrition Survey in Jiangsu Province, China. SUBJECTS: The sample contained 1061 Chinese adults (488 men and 573 women). BMI was calculated as a parameter of obesity. Factor analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. ANCOVA was performed to assess the associations between serum leptin concentration and the dietary patterns. RESULTS: Four dietary patterns were derived: Western, High-wheat, Traditional and Hedonic. The Western pattern (rich in meat, milk and cake) was significantly associated with a higher level of serum leptin in men and women, both in an unadjusted model (both P for trend < 0·001) and after adjusting for sex, age, income, total energy intake, physical activity, smoking status and BMI (P for trend = 0·007 for men and P for trend < 0·001 for women). The other three dietary patterns were not significantly associated with serum leptin after adjustment. Sensitivity analysis showed there was an interaction between age and the Western pattern in relation to leptin level. An interaction also existed between current smoking status and the Western pattern. CONCLUSIONS: Serum leptin concentration was positively associated with the Western dietary pattern in a Chinese population independent of BMI, energy intake and other factors.Public Health Nutrition 06/2013; · 2.25 Impact Factor