Frequency of soup intake and amount of dietary fiber intake are inversely associated with plasma leptin concentrations in Japanese adults.
ABSTRACT Previous studies have shown that the intake of soup negatively correlates with the body mass index (BMI), suggesting that soup intake reduces the risk of obesity. In this study, to clarify the association of the intake of soup and various nutrients with plasma leptin concentration, a cross-sectional study on 504 Japanese adults aged 20-76 years (103 men and 401 women) was performed. The intake of soup and various nutrients was investigated by food frequency questionnaires. Plasma leptin concentration was measured in fasting blood by radioimmunoassay. The correlation was analyzed by multiple regression analysis. The average frequency of soup intake was 7.6 times/week. The average plasma leptin concentration was 7.76 ng/ml. After adjusting the confounding factors, the frequency of soup intake has a significant inverse association with plasma leptin concentration. Among the macronutrients, only dietary fiber intake negatively correlated with plasma leptin concentration after the adjustment for potential confounding factors. These results suggest that the intakes of soup and dietary fiber were negatively correlated with plasma leptin concentration in Japanese adults.
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate the independent associations between serum leptin concentration and dietary patterns in a Chinese population. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Data obtained from the 2006 wave of the China Health and Nutrition Survey in Jiangsu Province, China. SUBJECTS: The sample contained 1061 Chinese adults (488 men and 573 women). BMI was calculated as a parameter of obesity. Factor analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. ANCOVA was performed to assess the associations between serum leptin concentration and the dietary patterns. RESULTS: Four dietary patterns were derived: Western, High-wheat, Traditional and Hedonic. The Western pattern (rich in meat, milk and cake) was significantly associated with a higher level of serum leptin in men and women, both in an unadjusted model (both P for trend < 0·001) and after adjusting for sex, age, income, total energy intake, physical activity, smoking status and BMI (P for trend = 0·007 for men and P for trend < 0·001 for women). The other three dietary patterns were not significantly associated with serum leptin after adjustment. Sensitivity analysis showed there was an interaction between age and the Western pattern in relation to leptin level. An interaction also existed between current smoking status and the Western pattern. CONCLUSIONS: Serum leptin concentration was positively associated with the Western dietary pattern in a Chinese population independent of BMI, energy intake and other factors.Public Health Nutrition 06/2013; 17(7):1-7. DOI:10.1017/S1368980013001535 · 2.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The radionuclides released from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in 2011 pose a health risk. In this study, we estimated the 1st-year average doses resulting from the intake of iodine 131 (131I) and cesium 134 and 137 (134Cs and 137Cs) in drinking water and food ingested by citizens of Fukushima City (∼50 km from the nuclear power plant; outside the evacuation zone), Tokyo (∼230 km), and Osaka (∼580 km) after the accident. For citizens in Fukushima City, we considered two scenarios: Case 1, citizens consumed vegetables bought from markets; Case 2, citizens consumed vegetables grown locally (conservative scenario). The estimated effective doses of 134Cs and 137Cs agreed well with those estimated through market basket and food-duplicate surveys. The average thyroid equivalent doses due to ingestion of 131I for adults were 840 µSv (Case 1) and 2700 µSv (Case 2) in Fukushima City, 370 µSv in Tokyo, and 16 µSv in Osaka. The average effective doses due to 134Cs and 137Cs were 19, 120, 6.1, and 1.9 µSv, respectively. The doses estimated in this study were much lower than values reported by the World Health Organization and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, whose assessments lacked validation and full consideration of regional trade in foods, highlighting the importance of including regional trade. The 95th percentile effective doses were 2-3 times the average values. Lifetime attributable risks (LARs) of thyroid cancers due to ingestion were 2.3-39×10-6 (Case 1) and 10-98×10-6 (Case 2) in Fukushima City, 0.95-14×10-6 in Tokyo, and 0.11-1.3×10-6 in Osaka. The contributions of LARs of thyroid cancers due to ingestion were 7.5%-12% of all exposure (Case 1) and 12%-30% (Case 2) in Fukushima City.PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e112791. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0112791 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective: Dietary patterns reflect diet and nutritional habits of individuals in a society. Various dietary patterns could influence leptin and adiponectin secretion from adipose tissue. These hormones are associated with metabolic diseases. It is suggested that the leptin-to-adiponectin (L/A) ratio might be a more useful diagnostic marker in predicting chronic diseases than leptin and adiponectin separately. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between various dietary patterns and L/A ratio in Iranian adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 apparently healthy subjects aged 25–50 years in Tabriz, Iran. Dietary patterns were determined using 132-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire on a 5-point scale. Weight, height, waist circumference (WC), as well as fasting serum leptin and adiponectin levels were measured to assess the association between dietary patterns and L/A ratio. Results: Four major dietary patterns were identified using a factor analysis approach: Western, healthy, mixed, and traditional dietary patterns. Linear regression analysis showed that a Western dietary pattern was negatively associated with serum adiponectin concentration, even after adjusting for the confounders (r D ¡0.19, p D 0.02). No statistically significant associations were found between any dietary pattern and leptin (r D¡0.14, p D 0.06) or L/A ratio (rD¡0.10, p D 0.09). Conclusion: Our findings indicate an inverse association between a Western dietary pattern and serum adiponectin levels but not for serum leptin or L/A ratio.Journal of the American College of Nutrition 02/2015; 34(1):http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions. DOI:10.1080/07315724.2014.880389 · 1.68 Impact Factor