Consequences of polyparasitism on anaemia among primary school children in Zimbabwe

National Institute of Health Research, Box CY 573, Causeway, Harare, Zimbabwe.
Acta tropica (Impact Factor: 2.27). 02/2010; 115(1-2):103-11. DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2010.02.010
Source: PubMed


The effect of concomitant infection with schistosomes, Plasmodium falciparum and soil transmitted helminths (STHs) on anaemia was determined in 609 Zimbabwean primary school children. P. falciparum, haemoglobin levels and serum ferritin were determined from venous blood. Kato Katz, formal ether concentration and urine filtration techniques were used to assess prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni, STHs and Schistosoma haematobium infections. The prevalence of S. haematobium, S. mansoni, P. falciparum, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides were 52.3%, 22.7%, 27.9%, 23.7%, 2.3% and 2.1%, respectively. The overall prevalence of anaemia and iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) were 48.4% (277/572) and 38.1% (181/475). Haemoglobin levels among children who had P. falciparum, S. haematobium and hookworm were lower than negative individuals, p<0.001, p<0.001 and p=0.030, respectively. The prevalence of anaemia and IDA in co-infections was almost double that in single infection. Children with P. falciparum/STHs/schistosome and schistosomes/P. falciparum co-infections recorded higher prevalence of anaemia and IDA (80.8% and 57.4%, respectively) than other combinations, p<0.001. Logistic regression revealed that, age group > or = 14 years, P. falciparum, S. haematobium light and heavy infections, and S. mansoni moderate and heavy infection, hookworm light infection were predictors of anaemia. This study suggests that integrated school based de-worming and malaria control have the potential to reduce the burden of anaemia.

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    • "The most serious consequence of hookworm infection is anaemia, secondary to loss of iron and protein of gut [3] . It has been estimated that a single A. duodenale ingests about 150 µL blood per day while N. americanus sucks about 30 µL[4]. However, the blood loss through this channel cannot be visualized by the naked eyes. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To establish the prevalence of hookworm infection among patients who reported at the parasitology laboratory of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital for intestinal parasitic investigation. Method: This retrospective study covered available data from January 2001 to December 2011. Records of patients referred to the parasitology laboratory of the hospital were manually reviewed for hookworm infection. Data on age, sex and status of hookworm infection (either present or absent) were retrieved and analyzed by using Microsoft Excel 2007 statistical package. Results: A total of 47 147 patients was reported at the laboratory for intestinal parasitic investigation. Among these patients, 158 patient were positive, representing an overall prevalence of 0.3% (158/47 147). Among the positive cases, the study revealed that the proportion of individuals in age groups <1, 1 to 9, 10 to 19, 20 to 29 and 30 to 39 years were 1.3% (2), 10.8% (17), 16.5% (26), 27.2% (43) and 23.4% (37) respectively. Furthermore, people in age group 40 to 49, 50 to 59 and ≥60 years were infected in the proportion of 8.7% (14), 5.7% (9) and 7.0% (11) respectively. Among the infected patients, the number of females was 62.7% (99) while that of males was 37.3% (59). The yearly prevalence rate dropped consistently from 0.84% in 2001 to 0.11% in 2005. However it increased marginally in 2006 (0.27%) and dropped to 0.00% in 2011. Conclusion: Hookworm infestation was found to be generally high between April and August. However the overall prevalence was relatively low among the study population.
    Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 05/2014; 4(Suppl 1):S158-61. DOI:10.12980/APJTB.4.2014APJTB-2013-0014
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    • "y of the par - asite community within an individual host may therefore be an important , yet underappreciated , indicator of the potential magni - tude of parasite - induced costs . Similarly , stepwise effects of hel - minth species richness on host hemoglobin levels have often been detected in human populations ( Ezeamama et al . , 2005 , 2008 ; Midzi et al . , 2010 ) . These studies support the idea that par - asite community richness itself , separate from the intensity of infection , has physiological costs . The costs associated with para - site richness may be particularly potent because the richness of different parasite groups commonly co - vary ( Krasnov et al . , 2005 ; Balestrieri et al ."
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    ABSTRACT: Most animals are concurrently infected with multiple parasites, and interactions among these parasites may influence both disease dynamics and host fitness. However, the sublethal costs of parasite infections are difficult to measure and the effects of concomitant infections with multiple parasite species on individual physiology and fitness are poorly described for wild hosts. To understand the direct and indirect physiological costs of co-infection, we investigated the relationships among gastrointestinal parasite richness, species identity, and abundance and host hematological parameters, body condition, and investment in lymphocyte defenses. Using aggregate-scale parasite data from African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), we found few direct or indirect associations between infection and hematology in male hosts, and no significant associations were observed in female hosts or with respect to body condition in either sex. These results suggest that only strong physiological effects are detectable with aggregate-scale parasite data, and that hematological variables may be more sensitive to changes in condition than standard body fat condition indices. Analyses accounting for parasite species identity in female buffalo revealed that different parasites show distinct relationships with host hematology, body condition, and immune investment. However, four of six species-specific associations were obscured when parasites were considered in combination. Overall, fitness-related physiological mediators such as hematological indices may provide assessments of direct and indirect effects of parasite infection, particularly when parasite species identity and community composition are considered.
    International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife 12/2012; 1:2–12. DOI:10.1016/j.ijppaw.2012.10.001
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    • "This comparative approach, used by us and in other studies [14,17,18,19,20], is very powerful for studying disease and immunology patterns where the history of exposure to the pathogen cannot be separated from age in lifelong residents of endemic areas. As previously published [21], Zimbabwe has low levels of geohelminths. In addition, Schistosoma mansoni levels are also low in most regions of Zimbabwe [22], while S. haematobium is the most prevalent helminth infection in Zimbabwe. "
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    ABSTRACT: The hygiene hypothesis suggests that parasitic infections protect against allergic diseases by modulating the host's immune responses. Experimental studies indicate that this protection depends on the intensity of parasitic infection, but this observation has not been tested in human populations. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the intensity of Schistosoma haematobium infection is related to atopic responses and whether this relationship differs between populations with distinct parasite transmission dynamics. The study was conducted in two villages with different Schistosoma haematobium transmission dynamics, i.e. high (n = 365) and low (n = 307) transmission. Allergic reactivity to the common house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) was measured by skin prick tests and allergen-specific IgE and IgG4 quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Atopic responses were related to current infection intensity and schistosome transmission levels. Schistosome infection intensity was negatively associated with the skin prick reactivity, mite-specific IgE and the ratio IgE/IgG4 in the high-transmission village. However, when only low levels of infection were analyzed in the 2 villages, there was no correlation between mite-specific responses and infection intensity. The relationship between schistosome infection and atopic responses is dependent on the intensity of current schistosome infection. Thus, consistent with results from animal models, with an increasing parasite burden, the immunoregulation of immune responses to allergens appears to become more pronounced.
    International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 03/2012; 158(3):288-98. DOI:10.1159/000332949 · 2.67 Impact Factor
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