Consequences of polyparasitism on anaemia among primary school children in Zimbabwe.
ABSTRACT The effect of concomitant infection with schistosomes, Plasmodium falciparum and soil transmitted helminths (STHs) on anaemia was determined in 609 Zimbabwean primary school children. P. falciparum, haemoglobin levels and serum ferritin were determined from venous blood. Kato Katz, formal ether concentration and urine filtration techniques were used to assess prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni, STHs and Schistosoma haematobium infections. The prevalence of S. haematobium, S. mansoni, P. falciparum, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides were 52.3%, 22.7%, 27.9%, 23.7%, 2.3% and 2.1%, respectively. The overall prevalence of anaemia and iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) were 48.4% (277/572) and 38.1% (181/475). Haemoglobin levels among children who had P. falciparum, S. haematobium and hookworm were lower than negative individuals, p<0.001, p<0.001 and p=0.030, respectively. The prevalence of anaemia and IDA in co-infections was almost double that in single infection. Children with P. falciparum/STHs/schistosome and schistosomes/P. falciparum co-infections recorded higher prevalence of anaemia and IDA (80.8% and 57.4%, respectively) than other combinations, p<0.001. Logistic regression revealed that, age group > or = 14 years, P. falciparum, S. haematobium light and heavy infections, and S. mansoni moderate and heavy infection, hookworm light infection were predictors of anaemia. This study suggests that integrated school based de-worming and malaria control have the potential to reduce the burden of anaemia.
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ABSTRACT: Background Anaemia reduces cognitive potential in school children, retards their growth and predisposes them to other diseases. As there is a paucity of data on the current burden of P. falciparum, S. mansoni and soil transmitted helminths (STH) infections and their correlation with schoolchildren’s anemia in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), we collect these data. Methods This study reports baseline data collected from a randomized controlled trial investigating the impact of IPT with SP and SP-PQ on anemia and malaria morbidity in Congolese schoolchildren (Trial registration: NCT01722539; PACTR201211000449323). S. mansoni and STH infections were assessed using kato-katz technique. Malaria infection and hemoglobin concentration were assessed using Blood smear and Hemocontrol device, respectively. Results A total of 616 primary schoolchildren from 4 to 13 years old were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of Plasmodium spp. infection was 18.5% (95%CI:15.6–21.9). Amongst those infected, 24 (21%), 40 (35.1%), 40 (35.1%), 10 (8.8%), had light, moderate, heavy, very high malaria parasite density, respectively. Above 9 years of age (p = 0.02), male and history of fever (p = 0.04) were both associated with malaria infection. The overall prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 6.4% (95%CI:4.4–9.1). Girls were associated with S. mansoni infection (p = 0.04). T. trichiura was the most prevalent STH infection (26.3%), followed by A. lumbricoides (20.1%). Co-infection with malaria-S. mansoni and malaria-STH was, respectively, 1.5% (CI95%:0.7–3.3) and 6.4% (CI95% 4.4–9.1). The prevalence of anemia was found to be 41.6% (95%CI:37.7–45.6) and anemia was strongly related with Plasmodium ssp infection (aOR:4.1; CI95%:2.6–6.5;p<0.001) and S. mansoni infection (aOR:3.3;CI95%:1.4–7.8;p<0.01). Conclusion Malaria and S. mansoni infection were strongly associated with high prevalence of anemia in schoolchildren. Therefore, specific school-based interventions, such as intermittent preventive treatment or prophylaxis, LLITN distribution, anthelminthic mass treatment and micronutrient supplementation are needed to improve school children’s health.PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e110789. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To establish the prevalence of hookworm infection among patients who reported at the parasitology laboratory of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital for intestinal parasitic investigation.Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 05/2014; 4(Suppl 1):S158-61.
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ABSTRACT: Schistosomiasis and STH are among the list of neglected tropical diseases considered for control by the WHO. Although both diseases are endemic in Zimbabwe, no nationwide control interventions have been implemented. For this reason in 2009 the Zimbabwe Ministry of Health and Child Care included the two diseases in the 2009-2013 National Health Strategy highlighting the importance of understanding the distribution and burden of the diseases as a prerequisite for elimination interventions. It is against this background that a national survey was conducted.PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 08/2014; 8(8):e3014. · 4.49 Impact Factor