Consequences of polyparasitism on anaemia among primary school children in Zimbabwe.
ABSTRACT The effect of concomitant infection with schistosomes, Plasmodium falciparum and soil transmitted helminths (STHs) on anaemia was determined in 609 Zimbabwean primary school children. P. falciparum, haemoglobin levels and serum ferritin were determined from venous blood. Kato Katz, formal ether concentration and urine filtration techniques were used to assess prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni, STHs and Schistosoma haematobium infections. The prevalence of S. haematobium, S. mansoni, P. falciparum, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides were 52.3%, 22.7%, 27.9%, 23.7%, 2.3% and 2.1%, respectively. The overall prevalence of anaemia and iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) were 48.4% (277/572) and 38.1% (181/475). Haemoglobin levels among children who had P. falciparum, S. haematobium and hookworm were lower than negative individuals, p<0.001, p<0.001 and p=0.030, respectively. The prevalence of anaemia and IDA in co-infections was almost double that in single infection. Children with P. falciparum/STHs/schistosome and schistosomes/P. falciparum co-infections recorded higher prevalence of anaemia and IDA (80.8% and 57.4%, respectively) than other combinations, p<0.001. Logistic regression revealed that, age group > or = 14 years, P. falciparum, S. haematobium light and heavy infections, and S. mansoni moderate and heavy infection, hookworm light infection were predictors of anaemia. This study suggests that integrated school based de-worming and malaria control have the potential to reduce the burden of anaemia.
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ABSTRACT: To quantify geographical variation in the relative contribution of parasitic infections, socioeconomic factors and malnutrition in the aetiology of anaemia among schoolchildren across Kenya, thereby providing a rational basis for the targeting of an integrated school health package. Nationally representative cross-sectional survey data were collected using standard protocols. For all included children, data were recorded on haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and common parasitic infections (Plasmodium falciparum, hookworm and schistosomes) and socioeconomic indicators. Ecological proxies of malnutrition and food security were generated using Demographic and Health Survey and UN Food and Agriculture Organization food security data, respectively. Spatially explicit, multilevel models were used to quantify impact upon child Hb concentration. Randomly selected schools in ecologically diverse settings across Kenya. Mean Hb concentration adjusted for infection, nutritional and socioeconomic risk factors; associated risk ratios and adjusted Population Attributable Fractions (PAFs) for anaemia, by region. Data were available for 16 941 children in 167 schools; mean Hb was 122.1 g/l and 35.3% of children were anaemic. In multivariate analysis, mean Hb was significantly lower in boys and younger children. Severe malnutrition and interactions between P falciparum and hookworm infections were significantly associated with lower Hb, with greater impacts seen for coinfected children. The contribution of risk factors to anaemia risk varied by province: in 14-year-old girls, PAFs ranged between 0% and 27.6% for P falciparum, 0% and 29% for hookworm and 0% and 18.4% for severe malnutrition. The observed geographical heterogeneity in the burden of anaemia attributable to different aetiological factors has important implications for the rational targeting of antianaemia interventions that can be included in an integrated school health programme.BMJ Open 01/2013; 3(2). · 1.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Controversies still exists within the research fraternity on the form and level of incentives, compensation and reimbursement to study participants in resource-constrained settings. While most research activities contribute significantly to advancement of mankind, little has been considered in rewarding directly the research participants from resource-constrained areas. A study was conducted in Zimbabwe to investigate views and expectations of various stakeholders on study participation incentives, compensation and reimbursement issues. Data was collected using various methods including a survey of about 1,008 parents/guardians of school children participating in various immunological cohort studies and parasitology surveys. Community advisory boards (CABs) at 9 of the sites were also consulted. Further, information was gathered during discussions held at a basic research ethics training workshop. The workshop had 45 participants that including 40 seasoned Zimbabwean researchers and 5 international research collaborators. About 90% (907) of the study participants and guardians expected compensation of reasonable value, in view of the researchers' value and comparison to other sites regardless of economic status of the community. During discussion with researchers at a basic ethics training workshop, about 80% (32) believed that decisions on level of compensation should be determined by the local research ethics committees. While, the few international research collaborators were of the opinion that compensation should be in accordance with local guidelines, and incentives should be in line with funding. Both the CAB members and study participants expressed that there should be a clear distinction between study incentive and compensation accorded to individual and community expectations on benefits from studies. However, CABs expressed that their suggestions on incentives and compensation are often moderated by the regulatory authorities who cite fear of unknown concerns. Overall, both personal and community benefits need to be considered colectively in future studies to be conducted in resource-constrained communities. There is projected fear that recruitment in future may be a challenge, now that almost every community, has somehow been reached and participated in some form of studies. A major concern on reimbursement, compensation or incentives should be internationally pegged regardless of different economic status of the individuals or communities where the study is to be conducted.BMC Medical Ethics 01/2013; 14 Suppl 1:S4. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study aims to assess the association between schistosomiasis and hookworm infection with hemoglobin levels of schoolchildren in northern Mozambique. Through a cross-sectional survey, 1,015 children from five to 12 years old in the provinces of Nampula, Cabo Delgado and Niassa were studied. Hookworm infection and urinary schistosomiasis were diagnosed, through Ritchie and filtration methods, with a prevalence of 31.3% and 59.1%, respectively. Hemoglobin levels were obtained with a portable photometer (Hemocue®). The average hemoglobin concentration was 10.8 ± 1.42 g/dL, and 62.1% of the children presented levels below 11.5 g/dL, of which 11.8% of the total number of children had hemoglobin levels below 9 g/dL. A multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated negative interactions between hemoglobin levels and ancylostomiasis, this being restricted to the province of Cabo Delgado (β = -0.55; p < 0.001) where an independent interaction between hemoglobin levels and urinary schistosomiasis was also observed (β = -0.35; p = 0.016). The logistical regression model indicated that hookworm infection represents a predictor of mild (OR = 1.87; 95% CI = 1.17-3.00) and moderate/severe anemia (OR = 2.71; 95% CI = 1.50 - 4.89). We concluded that, in the province of Cabo Delgado, hookworm and Schistosoma haematobium infections negatively influence hemoglobin levels in schoolchildren. Periodical deworming should be considered in the region. Health education and improvements in sanitary infrastructure could achieve long-term and sustainable reductions in soil-transmitted helminthiases and schistosomiasis prevalence rates.Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo 06/2014; 56(3):219-224. · 0.96 Impact Factor