A constitutive model for the mechanical characterization of the plantar fascia
ABSTRACT A constitutive model is proposed to describe the mechanical behavior of the plantar fascia. The mechanical characterization of the plantar fascia regards the role in the foot biomechanics and it is involved in many alterations of its functional behavior, both of mechanical and nonmechanical origin. The structural conformation of the plantar fascia in its middle part is characterized by the presence of collagen fibers reinforcing the tissue along a preferential orientation, which is that supporting the major loading. According to this anatomical evidence, the tissue is described by developing an isotropic fiber-reinforced constitutive model and since the elastic response of the fascia is here considered, the constitutive model is based on the theory of hyperelasticity. The model is consistent with a kinematical description of large strains mechanical behavior, which is typical of soft tissues. A fitting procedure of the constitutive model is implemented making use of experimental curves taken from the literature and referring to specimens of human plantar fascia. A satisfactory fitting of the tensile behavior of the plantar fascia has been performed, showing that the model correctly interprets the mechanical behavior of the tissue in the light of comparison to experimental data at disposal. A critical analysis of the model with respect to the problem of the identification of the constitutive parameters is proposed as the basis for planning a future experimental investigation of mechanical behavior of the plantar fascia.
- SourceAvailable from: Luis A Dorfmann
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- "These formulations can properly replicate uniaxial data of biological tissues rich in collagen fibers, however, the isotropic symmetry assumption is questionable since it is inconsistent with the structure and mechanical response of the material. More recently, greater focus has been placed on evaluating structural characteristics of collagen-rich biological tissues in relation to the material anisotropic response and in merging the findings to develop new constitutive descriptions (Lanir, 1983; Lin et al., 2009; Natali et al., 2010; Sacks and Sun, 2003). A comprehensive review of different constitutive formulations that use exponential , polynomial and logarithmic forms of strain energy functions to describe anisotropy within the tissue is given by Holzapfel et al. (2000). "
ABSTRACT: In this paper we propose a constitutive model to analyze in-plane extension of goat fascia lata. We first perform a histological analysis of the fascia that shows a well-organized bi-layered arrangement of undulated collagen fascicles oriented along two well defined directions. To develop a model consistent with the tissue structure we identify the absolute and relative thickness of each layer and the orientation of the preferred directions. New data are presented showing the mechanical response in uniaxial and planar biaxial extension. The paper proposes a constitutive relation to describe the mechanical response. We provide a summary of the main ingredients of the nonlinear theory of elasticity and introduce a suitable strain-energy function to describe the anisotropic response of the fascia. We validate the model by showing good fit of the numerical results and the experimental data. Comments are included about differences and analogies between goat fascia lata and the human iliotibial band.12/2013; 30C:306-323. DOI:10.1016/j.jmbbm.2013.12.002
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- "It has a fundamental role in the biomechanics of the foot, in supporting its medial longitudinal arch and in the mechanisms of propulsion, dissipating the forces and stresses involving the foot during gait or in other loading conditions (Hicks, 1954; Bolgla & Malone, 2004). It was also demonstrated recently that the PF is capable of storing strain energy and converting it into propulsive force, behaving like a quasi-elastic tissue (Natali et al. 2010; Pavan et al. 2011). "
ABSTRACT: Although the plantar fascia (PF) has been studied quite well from a biomechanical viewpoint, its microscopic properties have been overlooked: nothing is known about its content of elastic fibers, the features of the extracellular matrix or the extent of innervation. From a functional and clinical standpoint, the PF is often correlated with the triceps surae muscle, but the anatomical grounds for this link are not clear. The aim of this work was to focus on the PF macroscopic and microscopic properties and study how Achilles tendon diseases might affect it. Twelve feet from unembalmed human cadavers were dissected to isolate the PF. Specimens from each PF were tested with various histological and immunohistochemical stains. In a second stage, 52 magnetic resonance images (MRI) obtained from patients complaining of aspecific ankle or foot pain were analyzed, dividing the cases into two groups based on the presence or absence of signs of degeneration and/or inflammation of the Achilles tendon. The thickness of PF and paratenon was assessed in the two groups and statistical analyses were conducted. The PF is a tissue firmly joined to plantar muscles and skin. Analyzing its possible connections to the sural structures showed that this fascia is more closely connected to the paratenon of Achilles tendon than to the Achilles tendon, through the periosteum of the heel. The PF extended medially and laterally, continuing into the deep fasciae enveloping the abductor hallucis and abductor digiti minimi muscles, respectively. The PF was rich in hyaluronan, probably produced by fibroblastic-like cells described as 'fasciacytes'. Nerve endings and Pacini and Ruffini corpuscles were present, particularly in the medial and lateral portions, and on the surface of the muscles, suggesting a role for the PF in the proprioception of foot. In the radiological study, 27 of the 52 MRI showed signs of Achilles tendon inflammation and/or degeneration, and the PF was 3.43 ± 0.48 mm thick (99%CI and SD = 0.95), as opposed to 2.09 ± 0.24 mm (99%CI, SD = 0.47) in the patients in which the MRI revealed no Achilles tendon diseases; this difference in thickness of 1.29 ± 0.57 mm (99%CI) was statistically significant (P < 0.001). In the group of 27/52 patients with tendinopathies, the PF was more than 4.5 mm thick in 5, i.e. they exceeded the threshold for a diagnosis of plantar fasciitis. None of the other 25/52 paitents had a PF more than 4 mm thick. There was a statistically significant correlation between the thicknesses of the PF and the paratenon. These findings suggest that the plantar fascia has a role not only in supporting the longitudinal arch of the foot, but also in its proprioception and peripheral motor coordination. Its relationship with the paratenon of the Achilles tendon is consistent with the idea of triceps surae structures being involved in the PF pathology, so their rehabilitation can be considered appropriate. Finally, the high concentration of hyaluronan in the PF points to the feasibility of using hyaluronan injections in the fascia to treat plantar fasciitis.Journal of Anatomy 09/2013; 223(6). DOI:10.1111/joa.12111 · 2.23 Impact Factor