Loss of expression of ZAC/PLAGL1 in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is independent of promoter hypermethylation
ABSTRACT ZAC/PLAGL1 is a ubiquitously expressed, imprinted tumor suppressor gene located on 6q24, a chromosomal region that is frequently deleted in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Like p53, ZAC regulates cell cycle arrest and apoptosis concomitantly, and loss of expression is implicated in tumorigenesis in a variety of different cancers. In most tissues, ZAC transcription is monoallelic and driven by the paternal allele of promoter P1, which lies within a differentially methylated CpG island (DMR). In human blood cells, ZAC transcription is driven by promoter P2, which lies within an unmethylated CpG island and produces biallelic transcripts. Previous reports of epigenetic changes of ZAC in tumors have focused on P1, showing frequent loss of expression caused by paternal allele hypermethylation or loss of heterozygosity (LOH). As ZAC expression in normal B lymphocytes is derived from P2, in DLBCL we analyzed both promoters for gene expression, LOH and abnormal methylation. Loss of P2 transcription was observed in 8 of 11 lymphomas (73%), even though the P2 CpG island remained unmethylated. Three lymphomas showed evidence of LOH (23%), and abnormal methylation of the P1 DMR was observed in an additional four (31%), despite minimal P1 activity in normal B lymphocytes. These data indicate that downregulation of ZAC occurs in DLBCL, as in other cancers. However, unlike P1, transcriptional repression of P2 is not caused by hypermethylation of its associated CpG island in tumors. The mechanistic relationship between altered ZAC expression and epigenetic changes at its promoters thus appears more complex than previously supposed.
SourceAvailable from: Lucio H Castilla[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cytokine signaling pathways are frequent targets of oncogenic mutations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), promoting proliferation and survival. We have previously shown that the transcription factor PLAGL2 promotes proliferation and cooperates with the leukemia fusion protein Cbfβ-SMMHC in AML development. Here, we show that PLAGL2 upregulates expression of the thrombopoietin receptor Mpl, using two consensus sites in its proximal promoter. We also show that Mpl overexpression efficiently cooperates with Cbfβ-SMMHC in development of leukemia in mice. Finally, we demonstrate that PlagL2-expressing leukemic cells show hyper-activation of Jak2 and downstream STAT5, Akt and Erk1/2 pathways in response to Thpo ligand. These results show that PlagL2 expression activates expression of Mpl in hematopoietic progenitors, and that upregulation of wild-type Mpl provides an oncogenic signal in cooperation with CBFβ-SMMHC in mice.Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 01/2011; 25(4):655-62. DOI:10.1038/leu.2010.301 · 10.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Human pituitary adenomas are the most common intracranial neoplasms. Approximately 5% of them are familial adenomas. Patients with familial tumors carry germline mutations in predisposition genes, including AIP, MEN1 and PRKAR1A. These mutations are extremely rare in sporadic pituitary adenomas, which therefore are caused by different mechanisms. Multiple tumor suppressive genes linked to sporadic tumors have been identified. Their inactivation is caused by epigenetic mechanisms, mainly promoter hypermethylation, and can be placed into two groups based on their functional interaction with tumor suppressors RB or p53. The RB group includes CDKN2A, CDKN2B, CDKN2C, RB1, BMP4, CDH1, CDH13, GADD45B and GADD45G; AIP and MEN1 genes also belong to this group. The p53 group includes MEG3, MGMT, PLAGL1, RASSF1, RASSF3 and SOCS1. We propose that the tumor suppression function of these genes is mainly mediated by the RB and p53 pathways. We also discuss possible tumor suppression mechanisms for individual genes.Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 09/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.mce.2013.09.006 · 4.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are rare, complex tumors with a poor prognosis. The identification of new prognostic biomarkers is needed to improve patient management. Our aim was to determine the methylation status of the 118 CpG sites in the PLAGL1 tumor-suppressor gene P1 CpG island promoter and study the potential prognostic impact of PLAGL1 promoter methylation CpG sites in STS. Training cohorts constituted of 28 undifferentiated sarcomas (US) and 35 leiomyosarcomas (LMS) were studied. PLAGL1 mRNA expression was investigated by microarray analysis and validated by RT-qPCR. Pyrosequencing was used to analyze quantitative methylation of the PLAGL1 promoter. Associations between global promoter or specific CpG site methylation and mRNA expression were evaluated using Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient. Cox univariate and multivariate proportional hazard models were used to assess the predictive power of CpG site methylation status. Sixteen CpG sites associated with PLAGL1 mRNA expression were identified in US and 6 in LMS. Statistical analyses revealed an association between CpG107 methylation status and both overall and metastasis-free survival in US, which was confirmed in a validation cohort of 37 US. The exhaustive study of P1 PLAGL1 promoter methylation identified a specific CpG site methylation correlated with mRNA expression, which was predictive for both metastasis-free and overall survival and may constitute the first US-specific biomarker. Such a biomarker may be relevant for identifying patients likely to derive greater benefit from treatment.PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e80741. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0080741 · 3.53 Impact Factor