Survival study of natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery for rectosigmoid resection using transanal endoscopic microsurgery with or without transgastric endoscopic assistance in a swine model
ABSTRACT The feasibility of transanal rectosigmoid resection with transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) was previously demonstrated in a swine nonsurvival model in which transgastric endoscopic assistance also was shown to extend the length of colon mobilized transanally.
A 2-week survival study evaluating transanal endoscopic rectosigmoid resection with stapled colorectal anastomosis was conducted with swine using the transanal approach alone (TEM group, n = 10) or a transanal approach combined with transgastric endoscopic assistance (TEM + TG group, n = 10). Gastrotomies were created using a needleknife and balloon dilation, then closed using prototype T-tags. Outcomes were evaluated and compared between the groups using Student's t-test and Fisher's exact test.
Relative to the TEM group, the average length of rectosigmoid mobilized in the TEM + TG group was 15.6 versus 10.5 cm (p < 0.0005), the length of the resected specimen was 9 versus 6.2 cm (p < 0.0005), and the mean operative time was 254.5 versus 97.5 min (p < 0.0005). Intraoperatively, no organ injury or major bleeding was noted. Two T-tag misfires occurred during gastrotomy closure and four small staple line defects requiring transanal repair including one in the TEM group and three in the TEM + TG group (p = 0.2). Postoperatively, there was no mortality, and the animals gained an average of 3.4 lb. Two major complications (10%) were identified at necropsy in the TEM + TG group including an intraabdominal abscess and an abdominal wall hematoma related to T-tag misfire. Gastrotomy closure sites and colorectal anastomoses were all grossly healed, with adhesions noted in 60 and 70% and microabscesses in 50 and 20% of the gastrotomy sites and colorectal anastomoses, respectively.
Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) for rectosigmoid resection using TEM with or without transgastric endoscopic assistance is feasible and associated with low morbidity in a porcine survival model. Transgastric assistance significantly prolongs the operative time but extends the length of the rectosigmoid mobilized transanally, with a nonsignificant increase in complication rates related to gastrotomy creation.
- SourceAvailable from: Carlos Ramon Silveira Mendes[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Achieving a clear distal or circumferential resection margins with laparoscopic total mesorectal excision (TME) may be laborious, especially in obese males and when operating on advanced distal rectal tumors with a poor response to neoadjuvant treatment. Transanal (TaTME) is a new natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery modality in which the rectum is mobilized transanally using endoscopic techniques with or without laparoscopic assistance. We conducted a comprehensive systematic review of publications on this new technique in PubMed and Embase databases from January, 2008, to July, 2014. Experimental and clinical studies written in English were included. Experimental research with TaTME was done on pigs with and without survival models and on human cadavers. In these studies, laparoscopic or transgastric assistance was frequently used resulting in an easier upper rectal dissection and in a longer rectal specimen. To date, 150 patients in 16 clinical studies have undergone TaTME. In all but 15 cases, transabdominal assistance was used. A rigid transanal endoscopic operations/transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEO/TEM) platform was used in 37 patients. Rectal adenocarcinoma was the indication in all except for nine cases of benign diseases. Operative times ranged from 90 to 460 min. TME quality was deemed intact, satisfactory, or complete. Involvement in circumferential resection margins was detected in 16 (11.8 %) patients. The mean lymph node harvest was equal or greater than 12 in all studies. Regarding morbidity, pneumoretroperitoneum, damage to the urethra, and air embolism were reported intraoperatively. Mean hospital stay varied from 4 to 14 days. Postoperative complications occurred in 34 (22.7 %) patients. TaTME with TEM is feasible in selected cases. Oncologic safety parameters seem to be adequate although the evidence relies on small retrospective series conducted by highly trained surgeons. Further studies are expected.Techniques in Coloproctology 11/2014; 19(2). DOI:10.1007/s10151-014-1233-x · 1.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The feasibility of natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) resection for rectal cancer has been demonstrated in both survival swine and fresh human cadaveric models. In preparation for transitioning to human application, our group has performed transanal NOTES rectal resection in a large series of human cadavers. This experience both solidified the feasibility of resection and allowed optimization of technique prior to clinical application. Improvement in specimen length and operative time was demonstrated with increased experience and newer platforms. This extensive laboratory experience has paved the way for successful clinical translation resulting in an ongoing clinical trial. To date, based on published reports, 4 human subjects have undergone successful hybrid transanal NOTES resection of rectal cancer. While promising, instrument limitations continue to hinder a pure transanal approach. Careful patient selection and continued development of new endoscopic and flexible-tip instruments are imperative prior to pure NOTES clinical application.05/2012; 2012:287613. DOI:10.1155/2012/287613
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ABSTRACT: Several reports have demonstrated the safety of pure natural-orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (P-NOTES) using transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) and embryonic NOTES (E-NOTES; laparoscopic surgery through the umbilicus). This study was performed to compare the safety and applicability of NOTES rectosigmoidectomy between E-NOTES and P-NOTES in a swine model. E-NOTES was conducted through a single port using laparoscopic instruments (n = 11). P-NOTES was performed using TEM with transgastric endoscopic assistance (n = 11). Gastrotomies were created using a needle knife and the balloon dilatation technique, and closed using T-anchors. Blood samples were collected to evaluate changes in systemic cytokine levels during the preoperative and postoperative periods; operative outcomes were also evaluated and compared between the groups. The necropsy findings were recorded after sacrifice at 1 week after the procedure. The mean operative time for P-NOTES was significantly longer than that for E-NOTES (239 vs. 103 minutes, P < 0.001). The mean distance from the anal verge to colorectal anastomosis in the P-NOTES group was significantly less than that in the E-NOTES group (2.9 vs. 17.6 cm, P < 0.001). On necropsy, the complication rate of P-NOTES was higher than that of E-NOTES, but without statistical significance (54.5 % vs. 18.2 %, P = 0.091). The differences in changes in TNF-α, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β between P-NOTES and E-NOTES were not significant. E-NOTES rectosigmoidectomy in the swine model is safe, but remains challenging for use in pelvic dissection. P-NOTES rectosigmoidectomy using TEM may be a promising tool for pelvic dissection, but the transgastric approach involves a high degree of risk.Endoscopy 03/2011; 43(6):526-32. DOI:10.1055/s-0030-1256239 · 5.20 Impact Factor