TNF in host resistance to tuberculosis infection.
ABSTRACT TNF is essential to control Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and cannot be replaced by other proinflammatory cytokines. Overproduction of TNF may cause immunopathology, while defective TNF production results in uncontrolled infection. The critical role of TNF in the control of tuberculosis has been illustrated recently by primary and reactivation of latent infection in some patients under pharmacological anti-TNF therapy for rheumatoid arthritis or Crohn's disease. In this review, we discuss results of recent studies aimed at better understanding of molecular, cellular and kinetic aspects of TNF-mediated regulation of host-mycobacteria interactions. In particular, recent data using either mutant mice expressing solely membrane TNF or specific inhibitor sparing membrane TNF demonstrated that membrane TNF is sufficient to control acute M. tuberculosis infection. This is opening the way to selective TNF neutralization that might retain the desired anti-inflammatory effect but reduce the infectious risk.
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ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis continues to be one of the most successful pathogens on earth. Upon inhalation of M. tuberculosis by a healthy individual, the host immune system will attempt to eliminate these pathogens using a combination of immune defense strategies. These include the recruitment of macrophages and other phagocytes to the site of infection, production of cytokines that enhance the microbicidal capacity of the macrophages, as well as the activation of distinct subsets of leukocytes that work in concert to fight the infection. However, being as successful as it is, M. tuberculosis has evolved numerous strategies to subvert host immunity at virtual every level. As a consequence, one third of the world inhabitants carry M. tuberculosis, and tuberculosis continuous to cause disease in more than 8 million people with deadly consequences in well over 1 million patients each year. In this review, we discuss several of the strategies that M. tuberculosis employs to circumvent host immunity, as well as describe some of the mechanisms that the host uses to counter such subversive strategies. As for many other infectious diseases, the ultimate outcome is usually defined by the relative strength of the virulence strategies employed by the tubercle bacillus versus the arsenal of immune defense mechanisms of the infected host.Frontiers in Immunology 10/2014; 5:455. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00455
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To investigate the short- and long-term risk of cancer in patients with active tuberculosis (TB). DESIGN: Using Danish nationwide databases, we quantified cancer risk in TB patients during 19782011 compared with the general population. RESULTS: We observed 1747 cancers in 15 024 TB patients (median follow-up 8.5 years), reflecting a standardised incidence ratio (SIR) of 1.52 (95%CI 1.45-1.59). All-time SIR for extra-pulmonary cancer was 1.29 (95%CI 1.22-1.36) and for lung cancer it was 3.40 (95%CI 3.09-3.74). Absolute cancer risk 3 months after TB was 1.83% (SIR 11.09, 95%CI 9.82-12.48), with highly increased SIRs for malignant pleural mesothelioma (368.4), lung cancer (40.9), Hodgkin's lymphoma (30.6), ovarian cancer (26.4) and non-Hodgkin's malignant lymphoma (23.8). Between the 3-month and 5-year follow-up, the SIR for any cancer was 1.59 (95%CI 1.46-1.72), including 19- and 3-fold increases for malignant pleural mesothelioma and lung cancer. Beyond 5 years, the SIR of cancer was 1.17 (95%CI 1.10-1.25). Elevated long-term risks persisted for haematological (SIR 1.34, 95%CI 1.01-1.74) and tobacco-related cancers (SIR 1.78, 95%CI 1.60-1.97). CONCLUSION: TB is a marker of occult lung cancer and several extra-pulmonary cancers. TB also predicts increased long-term risk of cancer, possibly related to chronic inflammation and shared risk factors, including immunosuppression and smoking.The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 10/2014; 18(10):1211-9. DOI:10.5588/ijtld.14.0161 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lung granulomas are the pathologic hallmark of tuberculosis (TB). T cells are a major cellular component of TB lung granulomas and are known to play an important role in containment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. We used cynomolgus macaques, a non-human primate model that recapitulates human TB with clinically active disease, latent infection or early infection, to understand functional characteristics and dynamics of T cells in individual granulomas. We sought to correlate T cell cytokine response and bacterial burden of each granuloma, as well as granuloma and systemic responses in individual animals. Our results support that each granuloma within an individual host is independent with respect to total cell numbers, proportion of T cells, pattern of cytokine response, and bacterial burden. The spectrum of these components overlaps greatly amongst animals with different clinical status, indicating that a diversity of granulomas exists within an individual host. On average only about 8% of T cells from granulomas respond with cytokine production after stimulation with Mtb specific antigens, and few "multi-functional" T cells were observed. However, granulomas were found to be "multi-functional" with respect to the combinations of functional T cells that were identified among lesions from individual animals. Although the responses generally overlapped, sterile granulomas had modestly higher frequencies of T cells making IL-17, TNF and any of T-1 (IFN-γ, IL-2, or TNF) and/or T-17 (IL-17) cytokines than non-sterile granulomas. An inverse correlation was observed between bacterial burden with TNF and T-1/T-17 responses in individual granulomas, and a combinatorial analysis of pair-wise cytokine responses indicated that granulomas with T cells producing both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-10 and IL-17) were associated with clearance of Mtb. Preliminary evaluation suggests that systemic responses in the blood do not accurately reflect local T cell responses within granulomas.PLoS Pathogens 01/2015; 11(1):e1004603. DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1004603 · 8.06 Impact Factor