Unexplained cough in the adult.
ABSTRACT Unexplained cough is a diagnosis of exclusion that should not be made until a thorough validated diagnostic evaluation is performed, specific and appropriate validated treatments have been tried and failed, and uncommon causes have been ruled out. When chronic cough remains troublesome after the initial work up, determine that a protocol has been used that has been shown to lead to successful results. If such a protocol has been used, next consider whether or not pitfalls in management have been avoided. If they have been, the frequency of truly unexplained chronic cough usually should not exceed 10%. While patients with truly unexplained coughs have an overly sensitive cough reflex, the mere presence of an overly sensitive cough reflex does not by itself explain why they do not get better, because most patients with chronic cough, even those who respond to treatment and get better, have demonstrable heightened cough sensitivity. Management options include referral to a cough clinic with interdisciplinary expertise, speech therapy, and self-limited trials of drugs, preferentially with those shown to be effective in randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trials in patients with unexplained chronic cough.
- SourceAvailable from: Nicole Ryan[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background: Worldwide, cough is regarded as a challenging clinical problem due to its frequency and often limited therapeutic options. Chronic cough that remains refractory to usual medical treatment causes significant quality of life impairment in people with this problem. Methods: We have examined current evidence on recent additions in the treatment of cough, specifically treatment of refractory chronic cough with speech pathology and gabapentin. Relevant randomised control trials, reviews and case reports were identified through a PubMed and SCOPUS search of English-language literature referring to these concepts over the last eight years. Summary: Of the one hundred and two articles comprising this review the majority investigated the role of the transient receptor potential (TRP) receptors TRP Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and TRPA1 in cough and the potential of TRP antagonists as effective anti-tussives. However, these have only been tested in the laboratory and therefore their clinical effectiveness is unknown. Behavioural treatments such as speech pathology have gained momentum and this was evident in the increasing number of articles investigating its positive effect on cough. Investigation on the effectiveness of neuromodulating medications in the treatment of cough have been supported primarily through case series reports and prospective reviews however; their use (particularly gabapentin) has been significantly advanced through recently conducted randomised controlled trials. Conclusions: Recent additions in the treatment of chronic cough have been significant as they consider cough to have a unifying diagnosis of cough hypersensitivity with or without the presence of a neuropathic basis. Primarily, effective treatments for chronic cough target these areas and include behavioural treatment such as speech pathology and pharmaceutical treatment with neuromodulating medications such as gabapentin.Journal of Thoracic Disease. 03/2014;
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In patients with chronic cough, nearly 40% of the population does not experience definitive improvement of their cough despite correctly applying the anatomic diagnosis. In many of these patients with refractory cough, laryngeal symptoms are frequent. The region of the larynx/pharynx is configured as a bridge between the esophagus and the upper and lower respiratory tract. The association of reflux in patients with chronic cough and symptoms such as globus pharyngis, itchiness or the need to clear one's throat have recently been given attention due to the possibility of joint therapeutic intervention of the gastroesophageal reflux and larynx, both with new medications as well as with laryngeal rehabilitation therapies, with observed benefits in the disappearance of chronic cough in cases that had been previously labeled as refractory.Archivos de Bronconeumología 04/2013; 49(4):151–157. · 1.82 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Our objective was to evaluate the association between chronic cough and the variables that could influence the course of the cough in order to develop a profile for coughers with poor response to treatment. In our Chronic Cough Unit, 192 patients were prospectively followed up for 3 months, during which time all the variables that could influence the cough reflex were evaluated and treated. The improvement in cough was evaluated by the response of the patients to a visual analogical scale with scores from 0 to 4, considering 0 as «no changes» and an improvement as a score of 3 or 4. The cough was considered to have little response to treatment if it persisted without any improvement for more than 3 months. Using a multivariate logistic regression model, we input variables that were candidates for being associated with the improvement in cough 3 months later. In the final profile model of the cougher with poor prognosis, three variables remained: sex, typical gastroesophageal reflux and psychosocial disorder. Being male is associated with an improvement in cough 3 months later (OR = 2.10, 95%CI 1.00-4.38). However, having gastroesophageal reflux is associated with a reduction in the improvement three months later in 55% (OR = 0.45, 95%CI 0.24-0.84), and having a psychosocial disorder reduces the probability for improvement of the cough 3 months later in 70% (OR = 0.30, 95%CI 0.09-1.03).Archivos de Bronconeumología 06/2012; 48(6):197–201. · 1.82 Impact Factor