Toxicity, uptake kinetics and behavior assessment in zebrafish embryos following exposure to perfluorooctanesulphonicacid (PFOS).
ABSTRACT Perfluorooctanesulphonicacid (PFOS), a persistent organic contaminant, has been widely detected in the environment, wildlife and humans, but few studies have assessed its effect on aquatic organisms. The present study evaluated the effect of PFOS on zebrafish embryos. Zebrafish embryos exhibited developmental toxicity of bent spine, uninflated swim bladder, decreased heart rate and affected spontaneous movement after exposure to various PFOS concentrations (0-8mg/L) from 6 to 120h post-fertilization (hpf). The LC(50) at 120hpf was 2.20mg/L and the EC(50) at 120hpf was 1.12mg/L. Continuous exposure to PFOS from 1 to 121hpf resulted in a steady accumulation with no evidence of elimination. PFOS induced cell death at 24hpf was consistently found in the brain, eye, and tail region of embryos. PFOS exposure induced lesions in the muscle fibers with histological examination. Behavior assessment of PFOS in zebrafish embryos elevated the basal rate of swimming after 4 days of exposure, and larvae exposed to PFOS (0.25-4mg/L) for only 1h at 6dpf swam faster with increasing PFOS concentration. Embryos/larvae exposed to 8mg/L PFOS for 24h periods from 1 to 121hpf showed the highest incidence of malformations in the 97-121hpf window. This is the first study to define uptake kinetics and to focus on behavioral consequences following PFOS exposure in zebrafish. Our results further the understanding of the toxicity of PFOS to aquatic organisms and suggest the need for additional research to identify the mode of PFOS toxicity.
Article: Chronic zebrafish PFOS exposure alters sex ratio and maternal related effects in F1 offspring.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) is an organic contaminant ubiquitous in the environment, wildlife, and humans. Few studies have assessed its chronic toxicity on aquatic organisms. The present study defined the effects of long-term exposure to PFOS on zebrafish development and reproduction. Specifically, zebrafish at 8 h postfertilization (hpf) were exposed to PFOS at 0, 5, 50, and 250 µg/L for five months. Growth suppression was observed in the 250 µg/L PFOS-treated group. The sex ratio was altered, with a significant female dominance in the high-dose PFOS group. Male gonad development was also impaired in a dose-dependent manner by PFOS exposure. Although female fecundity was not impacted, the F1 embryos derived from high-dose exposed females paired with males without PFOS exposure developed severe deformity at early development stages and resulted in 100% larval mortality at 7 d postfertilization (dpf). Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid quantification in embryos indicated that decreased larval survival in F1 offspring was directly correlated to the PFOS body burden, and larval lethality was attributable to maternal transfer of PFOS to the eggs. Lower-dose parental PFOS exposure did not result in decreased F1 survival; however, the offspring displayed hyperactivity of basal swimming speed in a light-to-dark behavior assessment test. These findings demonstrate that chronic exposure to PFOS adversely impacts embryonic growth, reproduction, and subsequent offspring development.Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 06/2011; 30(9):2073-80. · 2.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Trimethyltin chloride (TMT) is a neurotoxicant that is widely present in the aquatic environment, primarily from the manufacture of PVC plastic, but few studies have evaluated aquatic neurotoxicity. We have examined TMT dose-dependent malformation and neurobehavioral toxicity in the embryonic zebrafish model. Exposure of embryos to TMT (0-10 μM) from 48 to 72 hours post fertilization (hpf) elicited a concentration-related increase (0-100%) in malformation incidence with an EC(25) of 5.55 μM. TMT also significantly modulated the frequency of tail flexion, the earliest motor behavior observed in developing zebrafish, and the ability to respond to a mechanical tail touch. Exposure to 5 μM TMT from 48 to 72 hpf modulated the photomotor response at 4 and 5 days post fertilization and significantly promoted apoptosis in the tail. Our study demonstrates the morphological and behavioral sensitivity of the developing zebrafish to TMT and establishes a platform for future identification of the affected pathways and chemical modulators of TMT toxicity.Neurotoxicology and Teratology 09/2011; 33(6):721-6. · 2.98 Impact Factor