Autophagonizer, a novel synthetic small molecule, induces autophagic cell death.
ABSTRACT Autophagy is an apoptosis-independent mechanism of cell death that protects the cell from environmental imbalances and infection by pathogens. We identified a novel small molecule, 2-(3-Benzyl-4-oxo-3,4,5,6,7,8-hexahydro-benzo[4,5]thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2-ylsulfanylmethyl)-oxazole-4-carboxylic acid (2-pyrrolidin-1-yl-ethyl)-amide (referred as autophagonizer), using high-content cell-based screening and the autophagosome marker EGFP-LC3. Autophagonizer inhibited growth and induced cell death in the human tumor cell lines MCF7, HeLa, HCT116, A549, AGS, and HT1080 via a caspase-independent pathway. Conversion of cytosolic LC3-I to autophagosome-associated LC3-II was greatly enhanced by autophagonizer treatment. Transmission electron microscopy and acridine orange staining revealed increased autophagy in the cytoplasm of autophagonizer-treated cells. In conclusion, autophagonizer is a novel autophagy inducer with unique structure, which induces autophagic cell death in the human tumor cell lines.
- SourceAvailable from: Govind Bhagat[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Malignant cells often display defects in autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved pathway for degrading long-lived proteins and cytoplasmic organelles. However, as yet, there is no genetic evidence for a role of autophagy genes in tumor suppression. The beclin 1 autophagy gene is monoallelically deleted in 40-75% of cases of human sporadic breast, ovarian, and prostate cancer. Therefore, we used a targeted mutant mouse model to test the hypothesis that monoallelic deletion of beclin 1 promotes tumorigenesis. Here we show that heterozygous disruption of beclin 1 increases the frequency of spontaneous malignancies and accelerates the development of hepatitis B virus-induced premalignant lesions. Molecular analyses of tumors in beclin 1 heterozygous mice show that the remaining wild-type allele is neither mutated nor silenced. Furthermore, beclin 1 heterozygous disruption results in increased cellular proliferation and reduced autophagy in vivo. These findings demonstrate that beclin 1 is a haplo-insufficient tumor-suppressor gene and provide genetic evidence that autophagy is a novel mechanism of cell-growth control and tumor suppression. Thus, mutation of beclin 1 or other autophagy genes may contribute to the pathogenesis of human cancers.Journal of Clinical Investigation 01/2004; 112(12):1809-20. · 12.81 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Resveratrol (3,5,4-trihydroxystilbene), a natural phytoalexin present in grapes, nuts, and red wine, has antineoplastic activities. Several molecular mechanisms have been described to underlie its effects on cells in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, the response of ovarian cancer cells to resveratrol is explored. Resveratrol inhibited growth and induced death in a panel of five human ovarian carcinoma cell lines. The response was associated with mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, formation of the apoptosome complex, and caspase activation. Surprisingly, even with these molecular features of apoptosis, analysis of resveratrol-treated cells by light and electron microscopy revealed morphology and ultrastructural changes indicative of autophagocytic, rather than apoptotic, death. This suggests that resveratrol can induce cell death through two distinct pathways. Consistent with resveratrol's ability to kill cells via nonapoptotic processes, cells transfected to express high levels of the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-x(L) and Bcl-2 are equally sensitive as control cells to resveratrol. Together, these findings show that resveratrol induces cell death in ovarian cancer cells through a mechanism distinct from apoptosis, therefore suggesting that it may provide leverage to treat ovarian cancer that is chemoresistant on the basis of ineffective apoptosis.Cancer Research 02/2004; 64(2):696-703. · 8.65 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Several types of cancer cells, including colorectal cancer-derived cell lines, show austerity, the resistance to nutrient starvation, but exactly how cancer cells obtain energy sources under conditions in which their external nutrient supply is extremely limited remains to be clarified. Because autophagy is a catabolic process by which cells supply amino acids from self-digested organelles, cancer cells are likely to use autophagy to obtain amino acids as alternative energy sources. Amino acid deprivation-induced autophagy was assessed in DLD-1 and other colorectal cancer-derived cell lines. The autophagosome-incorporated LC3-II protein level increased after treatment with a combination of autolysosome inhibitors, which interferes with the consumption of autophagosomes. Autophagosome formation was also morphologically confirmed using ectopically expressed green fluorescent protein-LC3 fusion proteins in DLD-1 and SW480 cells. These data suggest that autophagosomes were actively produced and promptly consumed in colorectal cancer cells under nutrient starvation. Autolysosome inhibitors and 3-methyl adenine, which suppresses autophagosome formation, remarkably enhanced apoptosis under amino acid-deprived and glucose-deprived condition. Similar results were obtained in the cells with decreased ATG7 level by the RNA interference. These data suggest that autophagy is pivotal for the survival of colorectal cancer cells that have acquired austerity. Furthermore, autophagosome formation was seen only in the tumor cells but not in the adjacent noncancerous epithelial cells of colorectal cancer specimens. Taken together, autophagy is activated in colorectal cancers in vitro and in vivo, and autophagy may contribute to the survival of the cancer cells in their microenvironment.Cancer Research 11/2007; 67(20):9677-84. · 8.65 Impact Factor