Article

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor: Regulation of hematopoiesis and involvement in the progression of blood diseases

Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Box EHSC, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.
Blood Cells Molecules and Diseases (Impact Factor: 2.33). 02/2010; 44(4):199-206. DOI: 10.1016/j.bcmd.2010.01.005
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a basic helix-loop-helix protein that belongs to the superfamily of environment-sensing PAS (Per-ARNT-Sim) proteins. A large number of ligands have been described to bind AhR and promote its nuclear translocation. In the nucleus, the AhR and its dimerization partner the AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) form a DNA-binding complex that acts as a transcriptional regulator. Animal and human data suggest that, beyond its mediating responses to xenobiotic and/or unknown endogenous ligands, the AhR has a role, although as yet undefined, in the regulation of cell cycle and inflammation. The AhR also appears to regulate the hematopoietic and immune systems during development and adult life in a cell-specific manner. While accidental exposure to xenobiotic AhR ligands has been associated with leukemia in humans, the specific mechanisms of AhR involvement are still not completely understood. However, recent data are consistent with a functional role of the AhR in the maintenance of hematopoietic stem and/or progenitor cells (HSCs/HPCs). Studies highlighting AhR regulation of HSCs/HPCs provide a rational framework to understand their biology, a role of the AhR in hematopoietic diseases, and a means to develop interventions for these diseases.

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Available from: Kameshwar P Singh, Jun 11, 2015
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    Edited by Afshin Mohammadi Bardbori, 05/2013; Karolinska Institutet., ISBN: 978-91-7549-163-9
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    ABSTRACT: The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor historically studied for its role in environmental chemical-mediated toxicity and carcinogenicity. In the last 5 years, however, it has become clear that the AhR, presumably activated by endogenous ligand(s), plays an important role in immune system development and function. Other articles in this edition summarize AhR function during T cell and antigen-presenting cell development and function, including the effects of AhR activation on dendritic cell function, T cell skewing, inflammation, and autoimmune disease. Here, we focus on AhR expression and function during B cell differentiation. Studies exploiting immunosuppressive environmental chemicals to probe the role of the AhR in humoral immunity are also reviewed to illustrate the multiple levels at which a "nominally activated" AhR could control B cell differentiation from the hematopoietic stem cell through the pro-B cell, mature B cell, and antibody-secreting plasma cell stages. Finally, a putative role for the AhR in the basic biology of B cell malignancies, many of which have been associated with exposure to environmental AhR ligands, is discussed.
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    ABSTRACT: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, such as 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA), are environmental pollutants that exert multiple toxic and carcinogenic effects. Studies showed that these effects are mediated by activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and modulated by allelic variants of Ahr gene. Here, we investigated the effects of DMBA treatment in the inflammatory response and bone marrow (BM) hematopoietic function of maximal acute inflammatory response (AIRmax) and minimal acute inflammatory response (AIRmin) heterogeneous mouse lines selected for high and low acute inflammatory responsiveness, respectively. The phenotypic selection resulted in the segregation of the Ahr(d) and Ahr(b1) alleles that confer low and high receptor ligand-binding affinity, respectively, in AIRmax and AIRmin mice. We observed a reduction in BM mature granulocyte population in AIRmin mice 24 hours after DMBA treatment while both blast and immature myeloid cells were increased. Proliferation and differentiation of BM myeloid cells in response to in vitro granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor stimulus were impaired in AIRmin-treated mice. These DMBA effects on myeloid BM cells (BMCs) affected the in vivo leukocyte migration to an inflammatory site induced by polyacrylamide beads (Biogel P-100, Bio-Rad, France) injection in AIRmin mice. On the other hand, these alterations were not observed in DMBA-treated AIRmax mice. These data indicate that DMBA affects myeloid cell differentiation and inflammatory response and Ahr(b1) allele in the genetic background of AIRmin mice contributes to this effect.
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