Association analysis between polymorphisms in the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) and dopamine transporter (DAT1) genes with cocaine dependence.
ABSTRACT Genetic research on cocaine dependence (CD) may help clarify our understanding of the disorder as well as provide novel insights for effective treatment. Since dopamine neurotransmission has been shown to be involved in drug reward, related genes are plausible candidates for susceptibility to CD. The dopamine receptor D(2) (DRD2) protein and dopamine transporter (DAT1) protein play regulatory roles in dopamine neurotransmission. The TaqI A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the DRD2 gene and the 3' variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in the DAT1 gene have been implicated in psychiatric disorders and drug addictions. In this study, we hypothesize that these polymorphisms contribute to increased risk for CD. Cocaine-dependent individuals (n=347) and unaffected controls (n=257) of African descent were genotyped for the polymorphisms in the DRD2 and DAT1 genes. We observed no statistically significant differences or trends in allele or genotype frequencies between cases and controls for either of the tested polymorphisms. Our study suggests that there is no association between the DRD2 and DAT1 polymorphisms and CD. However, additional studies using larger sample sizes and clinically homogenous populations are necessary before confidently excluding these variants as contributing genetic risk factors for CD.
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ABSTRACT: The risk for drug addiction is partially heritable. Genes of the dopamine system are likely candidates to harbour risk variants, as dopamine neurotransmission is involved in mediating the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. One functional single nucleotide polymorphism in dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2), rs1076560, is involved in regulating splicing of the gene and alters the ratio of DRD2 isoforms located pre- and postsynaptically. rs1076560 has been previously associated with cocaine abuse and we set out to confirm this association in a sample of European American (EA) (n = 336) and African American (AA) (n = 1034) cocaine addicts and EA (n = 656) and AA (n = 668) controls. We also analysed the role of rs1076560 in opioid dependence by genotyping EA (n = 1041) and AA (n = 284) opioid addicts. rs1076560 was found to be nominally associated with opioid dependence in EAs (p = 0.02, OR = 1.27) and AAs (p = 0.03, OR = 1.43). When both opioid-addicted ancestral samples were combined, rs1076560 was significantly associated with increased risk for drug dependence (p = 0.0038, OR = 1.29). This association remained significant after correction for multiple testing. No association was found with cocaine dependence. These data demonstrate the importance of dopamine gene variants in the risk for opioid dependence and highlight a functional polymorphism that warrants further study.Annals of Human Genetics 01/2014; 78(1):33-9. DOI:10.1111/ahg.12046 · 1.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Altered activity of the human dopamine transporter gene (hDAT) is associated with several common and severe brain disorders, including cocaine abuse. However, there is little a priori information on whether such alterations are due to nature (genetic variation) or nurture (human behaviors such as cocaine abuse). This study investigated the correlation between seven markers throughout hDAT and its mRNA levels in postmortem ventral midbrain tissues from 18 cocaine abusers and 18 strictly matched drug-free controls in the African-American population. Here, we show that one major haplotype with the same frequency in cocaine abusers versus drug-free controls displays a 37.1% reduction of expression levels in cocaine abusers compared with matched controls (P = 0.0057). The most studied genetic marker, variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) located in Exon 15 (3'VNTR), is not correlated with hDAT mRNA levels. A 5' upstream VNTR (rs70957367) has repeat numbers that are positively correlated with expression levels in controls (r(2) = 0.9536, P = 0.0235), but this positive correlation disappears in cocaine abusers. The findings suggest that varying hDAT activity is attributable to both genetics and cocaine abuse.Addiction Biology 10/2011; 19(1). DOI:10.1111/j.1369-1600.2011.00391.x · 5.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abnormal behaviors involving dopaminergic gene polymorphisms often reflect an insufficiency of usual feelings of satisfaction, or Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS). RDS results from a dysfunction in the "brain reward cascade," a complex interaction among neurotransmitters (primarily dopaminergic and opioidergic). Individuals with a family history of alcoholism or other addictions may be born with a deficiency in the ability to produce or use these neurotransmitters. Exposure to prolonged periods of stress and alcohol or other substances also can lead to a corruption of the brain reward cascade function. We evaluated the potential association of four variants of dopaminergic candidate genes in RDS (dopamine D1 receptor gene [DRD1]; dopamine D2 receptor gene [DRD2]; dopamine transporter gene [DAT1]; dopamine beta-hydroxylase gene [DBH]). Methodology: We genotyped an experimental group of 55 subjects derived from up to five generations of two independent multiple-affected families compared to rigorously screened control subjects (e.g., N = 30 super controls for DRD2 gene polymorphisms). Data related to RDS behaviors were collected on these subjects plus 13 deceased family members. Results: Among the genotyped family members, the DRD2 Taq1 and the DAT1 10/10 alleles were significantly (at least p < 0.015) more often found in the RDS families vs. controls. The TaqA1 allele occurred in 100% of Family A individuals (N = 32) and 47.8% of Family B subjects (11 of 23). No significant differences were found between the experimental and control positive rates for the other variants. Conclusions: Although our sample size was limited, and linkage analysis is necessary, the results support the putative role of dopaminergic polymorphisms in RDS behaviors. This study shows the importance of a nonspecific RDS phenotype and informs an understanding of how evaluating single subset behaviors of RDS may lead to spurious results. Utilization of a nonspecific "reward" phenotype may be a paradigm shift in future association and linkage studies involving dopaminergic polymorphisms and other neurotransmitter gene candidates.International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 12/2011; 8(12):4425-59. DOI:10.3390/ijerph8124425 · 1.99 Impact Factor