Association analysis between polymorphisms in the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) and dopamine transporter (DAT1) genes with cocaine dependence.
ABSTRACT Genetic research on cocaine dependence (CD) may help clarify our understanding of the disorder as well as provide novel insights for effective treatment. Since dopamine neurotransmission has been shown to be involved in drug reward, related genes are plausible candidates for susceptibility to CD. The dopamine receptor D(2) (DRD2) protein and dopamine transporter (DAT1) protein play regulatory roles in dopamine neurotransmission. The TaqI A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the DRD2 gene and the 3' variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in the DAT1 gene have been implicated in psychiatric disorders and drug addictions. In this study, we hypothesize that these polymorphisms contribute to increased risk for CD. Cocaine-dependent individuals (n=347) and unaffected controls (n=257) of African descent were genotyped for the polymorphisms in the DRD2 and DAT1 genes. We observed no statistically significant differences or trends in allele or genotype frequencies between cases and controls for either of the tested polymorphisms. Our study suggests that there is no association between the DRD2 and DAT1 polymorphisms and CD. However, additional studies using larger sample sizes and clinically homogenous populations are necessary before confidently excluding these variants as contributing genetic risk factors for CD.
SourceAvailable from: Flavio Pechansky[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background: Due to the mechanism of action of the dopamine transporter (DAT) in drug addiction, the DAT1 gene is a potential candidate for molecular studies. This paper aims to compare the prevalence of allele and genotype frequencies created by the 3' UTR variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) of this gene between crack cocaine users and controls. Methods: A cross-sectional sample of 237 current adult crack cocaine abusers or dependents (DSM-IV TR criteria) from in- and outpatient clinics in southern Brazil and 205 community controls were compared. The subjects were evaluated using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview - short version, and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale. DNA samples were genotyped for the DAT1 3' VNTR. Results: Logistic regression analysis was performed to compare the frequency of the 10.10 genotype (the putative risk genotype) to those of other genotypes. A significant difference (p = 0.04, OR = 1.758, CI = 1.026-3.012) indicating an increased frequency of the 10.10 genotype in the cases (59.9%) compared to the controls (49.3%) was verified using clinical and demographic covariates. Conclusions: This is one of the first genetic association studies on crack cocaine users in the literature. The results suggest an influence of the DAT1 gene, namely the 3' VNTR 10.10 genotype. However, more analyses will confirm and clarify its contribution as a possible risk factor for crack cocaine dependence. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.Neuropsychobiology 09/2014; 70(1):44-51. DOI:10.1159/000365992 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Growing evidence indicated conflicting results about the dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2)/kinase domain containing 1 gene (ANKK1) TaqIA single nucleotide polymorphism (rs1800497) and common illicit drug dependence risk including stimulants, opioid and marijuana. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between the polymorphism and common illicit drug dependence risk. A total of 25 available studies (26 subgroups) testing the association between the polymorphism and common illicit drug dependence were examined through Oct 2013. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using fixed- and random-effects models when appropriate. Heterogeneity and publication bias were evaluated. We found the DRD2/ANKK1 TaqIA polymorphism was significantly associated with increased risk of opioid dependence under homozygote, dominant, and recessive genetic model, respectively (homozygote: OR=1.546, 95%CI=1.279-1.87; dominant: OR=1.265, 95%CI=1.055-1.516; recessive: OR=1.409, 95%CI=1.182-1.680). Subgroup analyses were similar to the results of the total population by ethnicity and quality score. Besides, we also found that Caucasian and low-quality studies were major sources of heterogeneity for opioid dependence. We failed to find any significant association between the polymorphism and stimulants or marijuana neither in total population nor subgroup analyses under any genetic model. The current meta-analysis suggested that DRD2/ANKK1 TaqIA polymorphism might be associated with opioid dependence risk, but not associated with stimulants or marijuana dependence. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.Human Immunology 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.humimm.2014.12.005 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The risk for drug addiction is partially heritable. Genes of the dopamine system are likely candidates to harbour risk variants, as dopamine neurotransmission is involved in mediating the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. One functional single nucleotide polymorphism in dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2), rs1076560, is involved in regulating splicing of the gene and alters the ratio of DRD2 isoforms located pre- and postsynaptically. rs1076560 has been previously associated with cocaine abuse and we set out to confirm this association in a sample of European American (EA) (n = 336) and African American (AA) (n = 1034) cocaine addicts and EA (n = 656) and AA (n = 668) controls. We also analysed the role of rs1076560 in opioid dependence by genotyping EA (n = 1041) and AA (n = 284) opioid addicts. rs1076560 was found to be nominally associated with opioid dependence in EAs (p = 0.02, OR = 1.27) and AAs (p = 0.03, OR = 1.43). When both opioid-addicted ancestral samples were combined, rs1076560 was significantly associated with increased risk for drug dependence (p = 0.0038, OR = 1.29). This association remained significant after correction for multiple testing. No association was found with cocaine dependence. These data demonstrate the importance of dopamine gene variants in the risk for opioid dependence and highlight a functional polymorphism that warrants further study.Annals of Human Genetics 01/2014; 78(1):33-9. DOI:10.1111/ahg.12046 · 1.93 Impact Factor