A method for recording evoked local field potentials in the primate dentate gyrus in vivo
ABSTRACT Recording evoked local field potentials (LFPs) in the hippocampus in vivo has yielded us useful information about the neural mechanisms of learning and memory. Although this technique has been used in studies of the hippocampus of rodents, lagomorphs, and felines, it has not yet been applied to the primate hippocampus. Here, we report a method for recording evoked LFPs in the hippocampus of monkeys. A stimulation electrode and a recording electrode were implanted in the perforant pathway and dentate gyrus, respectively, under the guidance of electrophysiological recording. With a low stimulus intensity just above the threshold, the potential appeared as a slow positive-wave component, which was regarded as field excitatory postsynaptic potential (putative fEPSP); as stimulation intensity increased, the fEPSP amplitude increased, followed by a sharp negative component which was regarded as putative population spike. When the coordinates of the recording or stimulation electrode were moved stepwise, we observed a systematic change in the waveforms of evoked LFPs; this change corresponded to the structural arrangement through which the electrode passed. In a test for short-term synaptic plasticity by paired-pulse stimulation, potentials evoked by the second pulse were influenced by the first one in a manner dependent on interpulse intervals. In a test for long-term synaptic plasticity by high-frequency stimulation, the slopes of the fEPSPs and the area of population spikes were increased for more than 1 h. These results indicate that the method developed in the present study is useful for testing theories of hippocampal functions in primates.
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ABSTRACT: The hippocampus plays an important role in learning and memory. Synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus, short-term and long-term, is postulated to be a neural substrate of memory trace. Paired-pulse stimulation is a standard technique for evaluating a form of short-term synaptic plasticity in rodents. However, evidence is lacking for paired-pulse responses in the primate hippocampus. In the present study, we recorded paired-pulse responses in the dentate gyrus of monkeys while stimulating to the medial part of the perforant path at several inter-pulse intervals (IPIs) using low and high stimulus intensities. When the stimulus intensity was low, the first pulse produced early strong depression (at IPIs of 10-30 ms) and late slight depression (at IPIs of 100-1000 ms) of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) generated by the second pulse, interposing no depression IPIs (50-70 ms). When the stimulus intensity was high, fEPSPs generated by the second pulse were depressed by the first pulse at all IPIs except for the longest one (2000 ms). Population spikes (PSs) generated by the second pulse were completely blocked or strongly depressed at shorter IPIs (10-100 or 200 ms, respectively), while no depression or slight facilitation occurred at longer IPIs (500-2000 ms). Administration of diazepam slightly increased fEPSPs, while it decreased PSs produced by the first pulse. It also enhanced the facilitation of PSs produced by the second stimulation at longer IPIs. The present results, in comparison with previous studies using rodents, indicate that paired-pulse responses of fEPSPs in the monkey are basically similar to those of rodents, although paired-pulse responses of PSs in the monkey are more delayed than those in rodents and have a different sensitivity to diazepam.PLoS ONE 05/2011; 6(5):e20006. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0020006 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It has been demonstrated in the rodent hippocampus that rhythmic slow activity (theta) predominantly occurs during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, while sharp waves and associated ripples occur mainly during non-REM sleep. However, evidence is lacking for correlates of sleep stages with electroencephalogram (EEG) in the hippocampus of monkeys. In the present study, we recorded hippocampal EEG from the dentate gyrus in monkeys overnight under conditions of polysomnographical monitoring. As result, the hippocampal EEG changed in a manner similar to that of the surface EEG: during wakefulness, the hippocampal EEG showed fast, desynchronized waves, which were partly replaced with slower waves of intermediate amplitudes during the shallow stages of non-REM sleep. During the deep stages of non-REM sleep, continuous, slower oscillations (0.5-8 Hz) with high amplitudes were predominant. During REM sleep, the hippocampal EEG again showed fast, desynchronized waves similar to those found during wakefulness. These results indicate that in the monkey, hippocampal rhythmic slow activity rarely occurs during REM sleep, which is in clear contrast to that of rodents. In addition, the increase in the slower oscillations of hippocampal EEG during non-REM sleep, which resembled that of the surface EEG, may at least partly reflect cortical inputs to the dentate gyrus during this behavioral state.PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e82994. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0082994 · 3.53 Impact Factor