Considerations in glaucoma therapy: fixed combinations versus their component medications.

Morehouse School of Medicine, 720 Westview Drive SW, Atlanta, GA, USA.
Clinical Ophthalmology 01/2010; 4:1-9. DOI: 10.2147/OPTH.S6645
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Fixed combinations of medications that lower intraocular pressure (IOP) are increasingly used in the treatment of glaucoma and ocular hypertension and offer several potential advantages over combined use of the separate component medications including enhanced convenience, improved adherence, reduced exposure to preservatives, and possible cost savings. This review aims to examine the current role of IOP-lowering fixed combinations in disease management. The results of studies that compared the efficacy and safety of IOP-lowering fixed combinations with their component medications are summarized, including those fixed combinations that consist of a prostaglandin analog and timolol. The fixed combinations currently available for use in the United States are fixed-combination dorzolamide/timolol (FCDT) and fixed-combination brimonidine/timolol (FCBT). Both of these fixed combinations reduce IOP more effectively than their component medications used separately as monotherapy. FCBT therapy also demonstrates a more favorable safety profile and reduced ocular allergy compared to monotherapy with brimonidine, a component medication. Few studies have directly compared the efficacy and safety of FCDT and FCBT, but available evidence suggests that FCBT is at least as effective as FCDT in lowering IOP and is more comfortable and better tolerated. Additional studies are needed to further evaluate the comparative efficacy and tolerability of FCDT and FCBT in the management of glaucoma and ocular hypertension.

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    ABSTRACT: To assess the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering effect of travoprost 0.004%/timolol 0.5% fixed-dose combination (TRAV/TIM-FC) in patients not achieving the target IOP of ≤18 mmHg while on timolol 0.5% (TIM) monotherapy.
    Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.) 01/2014; 8:1527-34.
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    ABSTRACT: The efficacy, safety and tolerability of the preservative-free (PF) fixed combination (FC) of tafluprost 0.0015% and timolol 0.5% (once daily) were compared to those of the individual components (PF tafluprost 0.0015% once daily and PF timolol 0.5% twice daily) in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension inadequately controlled on prior timolol or prostaglandin monotherapy for 6 months. A stratified, double-masked, randomized, multicenter phase III study was conducted. A total of 189 prior timolol users were randomized within the timolol stratum (TS) to receive either FC (n = 95) or timolol 0.5% (TIM; n = 94). Furthermore, a total of 375 prior prostaglandin analog (PGA) users were randomized within the prostaglandin stratum (PS) to receive either FC (n = 188) or tafluprost 0.0015% (TAF; n = 187). To be eligible for participation in the study, the patients were required to have an intraocular pressure (IOP) of ≥22 mmHg when on timolol (TIM) or of ≥20 mmHg when on PGA in either treated eye at the screening and end-of-run-in visits. In addition to these, the study included visits at baseline, 2 and 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months and at a post-study visit. IOP was measured at 8 a.m., 10 a.m., 4 p.m., and 8 p.m. In the TS, a significant reduction from baseline IOP was seen with FC and TIM throughout the study. Average diurnal IOP change from baseline at month 3 was -8.55 mmHg (32%) for FC and -7.35 mmHg (28%) for TIM. The model-based treatment difference (FC-TIM) was -0.885 mmHg [95% confidence interval (CI) -1.745 to -0.024; p = 0.044] demonstrating the superiority of FC over TIM. In the PS, a significant reduction in IOP was seen with both FC and TAF throughout the study. The average diurnal IOP change from baseline at month 3 was -8.61 mmHg (33%) for FC and -7.23 mmHg (28%) for TAF. The model-based treatment difference (FC-TAF) was -1.516 mmHg (95% CI -2.044 to -0.988; p < 0.001) demonstrating the superiority of FC over TAF. In the TS, related ocular adverse events (AEs) were more frequent for patients treated with FC compared to TIM (16.8% versus 6.4%), whereas related non-ocular AEs were more frequent with TIM compared to FC (2.1% versus 0.0%). In the PS, AEs were similarly distributed between FC and TAF. The frequency of conjunctival hyperemia of FC was low (6.4%). The preservative-free fixed combination of tafluprost and timolol provided a substantial and significant IOP reduction in both strata. The IOP reduction was superior to both tafluprost 0.0015% and timolol 0.5% when given as monotherapies. Overall, the study treatments were safe and well tolerated. Santen Oy, Tampere, Finland.
    Advances in Therapy 12/2014; · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fixed-combination intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering medications simplify treatment regimens for patients requiring 2 ocular hypotensive agents to maintain sufficiently low IOP. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of fixed-combination brinzolamide 1%/brimonidine 0.2% (BBFC) versus concomitant administration of brinzolamide 1% plus brimonidine 0.2% (BRINZ + BRIM) in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. This was a prospective, phase 3, multicenter, double-masked, 6-month trial. Patients who had insufficient IOP control with monotherapy or who were receiving 2 IOP-lowering medications were randomized 1:1 to receive twice-daily BBFC or BRINZ + BRIM. IOP was assessed at 9 a.m. and 11 a.m. during week 2, week 6, month 3, and month 6 visits. The primary efficacy endpoint was mean diurnal IOP change from baseline to month 3; noninferiority was concluded if the upper limit of the 95% CI of the between-group difference was <1.5 mmHg. Supportive endpoints included mean IOP, IOP change from baseline, and percentage of patients with IOP <18 mmHg. Adverse events were recorded. The mean diurnal IOP change from baseline with BBFC (least squares mean ± standard error -8.5 ± 0.16 mmHg) was noninferior to that with BRINZ + BRIM (-8.3 ± 0.16 mmHg; mean difference -0.1 mmHg; 95% CI -0.5 to 0.2 mmHg). The upper limits of the 95% CIs were <1.5 mmHg at all time points. Decreases from baseline >8 mmHg were observed for least squares mean diurnal IOP in both groups as early as week 2 and continued to the end of the study. The results of all other supportive endpoints were similar to the primary efficacy endpoint. The most common ocular adverse drug reactions were hyperemia of the eye (reported as ocular or conjunctival hyperemia), visual disturbances, ocular allergic reactions, and ocular discomfort. Common systemic adverse drug reactions included dysgeusia, oral dryness, and fatigue/drowsiness. Brinzolamide 1%/brimonidine 0.2% fixed combination was as well tolerated and effective as concomitant therapy with its components. BBFC reduces treatment burden in patients who require multiple IOP-lowering medications.
    Advances in Therapy 11/2014; · 2.44 Impact Factor

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