Unravelling the phylogenetic relationships of lichenised fungi in Dothideomyceta. Stud Mycol

Committee on Evolutionary Biology, University of Chicago, 1025 E. 57th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637, U.S.A.
Studies in Mycology (Impact Factor: 13.25). 03/2009; 64:135-144S4. DOI: 10.3114/sim.2009.64.07
Source: PubMed


We present a revised phylogeny of lichenised Dothideomyceta (Arthoniomycetes and Dothideomycetes) based on a combined data set of nuclear large subunit (nuLSU) and mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) rDNA data. Dothideomyceta is supported as monophyletic with monophyletic classes Arthoniomycetes and Dothideomycetes; the latter, however, lacking support in this study. The phylogeny of lichenised Arthoniomycetes supports the current division into three families: Chrysothrichaceae (Chrysothrix), Arthoniaceae (Arthonia s. l., Cryptothecia, Herpothallon), and Roccellaceae (Chiodecton, Combea, Dendrographa, Dichosporidium, Enterographa, Erythrodecton, Lecanactis, Opegrapha, Roccella, Roccellographa, Schismatomma, Simonyella). The widespread and common Arthonia caesia is strongly supported as a (non-pigmented) member of Chrysothrix. Monoblastiaceae, Strigulaceae, and Trypetheliaceae are recovered as unrelated, monophyletic clades within Dothideomycetes. Also, the genera Arthopyrenia (Arthopyreniaceae) and Cystocoleus and Racodium (Capnodiales) are confirmed as Dothideomycetes but unrelated to each other. Mycomicrothelia is shown to be unrelated to Arthopyrenia s.str., but is supported as a monophyletic clade sister to Trypetheliaceae, which is supported by hamathecium characters. The generic concept in several groups is in need of revision, as indicated by non-monophyly of genera, such as Arthonia, Astrothelium, Cryptothecia, Cryptothelium, Enterographa, Opegrapha, and Trypethelium in our analyses.

Download full-text


Available from: Eimy Rivas Plata, Sep 29, 2015
1 Follower
48 Reads
    • "The genus Coniarthonia Grube, which is not included here, is expected to be related to the cryptothecioid subclade due to its similar ascoma structure with Crypthonia. Although the results of this phylogeny would allow for the resurrection of an emended family Crypto theciaceae as recently discussed in Nelsen & al. (2009), we are convinced that its species are best accommodated within Arthoniaceae as presently circumscribed, at least until additional molecular and morphological evidence clearly supports a more extensive restructuring of that family. Previous hypotheses on the classification of the cryptothecioid Arthoniaceae (Santesson, 1952; Makhija & Patwardhan, 1994; Lücking & al., 2006; Frisch & Thor, 2010) are only partly supported. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Arthoniales is the second-largest group of lichen-forming fungi. A new phylogeny of Arthoniales based on mtSSU, nLSU and RPB2 sequence data is presented, with a focus on crustose representatives. A total of 145 taxa are analyzed including 64 species of Arthoniaceae. We obtained 198 new sequences for 83 specimens representing 71 taxa of Arthoniales. Arthoniaceae is recovered as polyphyletic, demonstrating that previous classifications do not reflect evolutionary patterns. Three phylogenetic lineages are identified: the Arthoniaceae clade, the Bryostigma clade and the Felipes clade. The Bryostigma clade is related to Arthoniaceae, while the Felipes clade shows close affinities to Chrysotrichaceae. Cryptotheciaceae is included as a paraphyletic grouping in Arthoniaceae. Lecanographaceae and the genera Felipes and Melarthonis are described. Bryostigma and Pachnolepia are reinstated for former Arthonia species, and Myriostigma for the Cryptothecia candida complex. Fouragea is reinstated for foliicolous Opegrapha species. Arthonia eos is described and the new combination Alyxoria mougeotii is made. A lectotype is selected for Spiloma fallax. Melaspilea granitophila belongs in Arthoniaceae and Arthonia mediella in Chrysotrichaceae. According to the phylogenetic hypothesis, lichen secondary chemistry, such as pulvinic acid derivates or red pigments, does not characterize monophyletic groups above the genus level. The parasitic life style in Arthoniaceae has evolved more than once. Parasitic species are found in four lineages of the Arthoniaceae clade and in the Bryostigma clade. Arthoniomycetes with chlorococcoid photobionts are restricted to the Bryostigma clade and Chrysotrichaceae, while the only saprophytic Arthonia species in the phylogeny are related to Arthonia radiata and group with lichenized taxa. The phylogenetic data provide a coherent framework for delineating further monophyletic groups in Arthoniaceae in the future.
    Taxon 08/2014; 63(4). DOI:10.12705/634.20 · 3.30 Impact Factor
    • "dentify the photobionts , BM generated sequences of the algal rbc L gene for two samples of Lepidostroma calocerum from Colombia and one sample of Sulzbacheromyces caatingae from Brazil and aligned these with 64 samples of Chlorophyta from Genbank ( Table 3 ) . PCR and sequencing methods , as well as primers , followed Matheny et al . ( 2007 ) and Nelsen et al . ( 2009 ) . The dataset comprising the 104 nuLSU sequences was assembled into a multiple alignment using BIOEDIT 7 . 09 ( Hall 1999 ) and automatically aligned with MAFFT using the - - auto option ( Katoh and Toh 2005 ) . The unaligned dataset was also subjected to analysis of ambiguously aligned regions using the GUIDANCE webserver ( Penn et a"
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present a revised molecular phylogeny of higher Basidiomycota focusing on Lepidostromataceae based on the large subunit (28S) of the nuclear ribosomal rDNA (nuLSU), with additionl data from the translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 (TEF1) and the RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) genes. Our results suggest that Lepidostromataceae is best recognized in a separate order, Lepidostromatales ordo novum, within subclass Agaricomycetidae. Furthermore, the internal topology of Lepidostromataceae, correlating with thallus features, indicates that three genera, instead of a single genus, should be recognized. We therefore introduce the genera Ertzia genus novum and Sulzbacheromyces genus novum for Lepidostroma akagerae and L. caatingae, respectively. In addition, the new species L. winklerianum spec. nova is described for Mexican material previously identified as L. calocerum. The photobionts of Sulzbacheromyces and Lepidostroma were identified using molecular data of the large subunit of the ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rbcL) gene, revealing a possibly undescribed genus in Trebouxiophyceae and the first report of lichenization for the genus Bracteacoccus in Chlorophyceae.
    Fungal diversity 01/2014; 64(1). DOI:10.1007/s13225-013-0267-0 · 6.22 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "In these groups we also find complex morphologies (stratified lichen thalli that also include shrub-or leaf-like habits). The lichen lifestyle is not predominant in Dothideomycetes and is scattered in different clades within this class (Muggia et al., 2008; Nelsen et al., 2009; Figure 2). Also, lichen thallus morphology in Dothideomycetes is generally simple (Figure 1B). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Black meristematic fungi can survive high doses of radiation and are resistant to desiccation. These adaptations help them to colonize harsh oligotrophic habitats, e.g., on the surface and subsurface of rocks. One of their most characteristic stress-resistance mechanisms is the accumulation of melanin in the cell walls. This, production of other protective molecules and a plastic morphology further contribute to ecological flexibility of black fungi. Increased growth rates of some species after exposure to ionizing radiation even suggest yet unknown mechanisms of energy production. Other unusual metabolic strategies may include harvesting UV or visible light or gaining energy by forming facultative lichen-like associations with algae or cyanobacteria. The latter is not entirely surprising, since certain black fungal lineages are phylogenetically related to clades of lichen-forming fungi. Similar to black fungi, lichen-forming fungi are adapted to growth on exposed surfaces with low availability of nutrients. They also efficiently use protective molecules to tolerate frequent periods of extreme stress. Traits shared by both groups of fungi may have been important in facilitating the evolution and radiation of lichen-symbioses.
    Frontiers in Microbiology 11/2012; 3:390. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2012.00390 · 3.99 Impact Factor
Show more