Reduced drug accumulation is more important in acquired resistance against oxaliplatin than against cisplatin in isogenic colon cancer cells.
ABSTRACT Preclinical studies have indicated that there is only partial cross-resistance between cisplatin and oxaliplatin. The molecular background for this is incompletely known. To investigate the differences in resistance, we rendered a colon cancer cell line (S1) resistant against cisplatin and oxaliplatin and characterized the subclones with regard to cross-resistance, platinum uptake, and gene expression profiles. Four oxaliplatin and four cisplatin-resistant cell lines were produced from S1 by step-wise increasing the concentrations of the drugs in the growth medium. Cytotoxicity was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and platinum accumulation in cell lysates and DNA preparations by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Gene expression was investigated by cDNA microarrays. The protein expression of the ATP-binding cassette B1 (ABCB1) was measured by immunohistochemistry. The cisplatin-resistant cell lines were 1.5-6.2-fold resistant against cisplatin and the oxaliplatin-resistant sublines 2.6-17-fold resistant against oxaliplatin. There was a limited degree of cross-resistance. Oxaliplatin resistance could be explained to a larger degree by reduced drug accumulation whereas mechanisms for increased tolerance against platinum incorporation in DNA seemed to be of higher importance for resistance against cisplatin. A greater number of ABC transporters were upregulated in the oxaliplatin-resistant cell lines compared with those selected for cisplatin resistance. ABCB1 was highly overexpressed in the three most oxaliplatin-resistant sublines, but significantly underexpressed in the two most cisplatin-resistant cell lines. This was also confirmed by immunohistochemistry. However, functional tests did not show any increase in ABCB1 transport activity in the oxaliplatin-resistant sub-lines compared with S1.
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ABSTRACT: Src is a member of a superfamily of membrane-associated non-receptor protein tyrosine kinases. It is stimulated by receptors of growth hormone, cytokines, and adipokines, and it regulates multiple signaling pathways including PI3K/Akt, MAPK, STAT3, IL-8, VEGF, cytoskeletal pathways to cause a cascade of cellular responses. Eighty percent of colon cancer patients over-express Src in the tumor tissue. Evidence has shown that the over-expression of Src in colon cancer accelerates metastasis and causes chemotherapeutic drug resistance via multiple down-stream signaling pathways. Therefore, the inhibition of Src may be useful for the treatment of colon cancer. However, the inhibition of Src may also weaken immune responses that are essential for the eradication of cancer cells. Overcoming the problem to inhibit Src in cancer cells and at meantime to retain immune system efficacy is the key to the successful application of Src inhibition therapy. Different Src members are used by the immune system and colon cancer. This differential use may provide a good opportunity to develop Src member-specific inhibitors to avoid immune inhibition.Clinical Colorectal Cancer 01/2013; · 1.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum, CDDP) is widely used for treatment of patients with solid tumors formed in various organs including the lung, prostate and cervix, but is much less sensitive in colon and breast cancers. One major factor implicated in the ineffectiveness has been suggested to be acquisition of the CDDP resistance. Here, we established the CDDP-resistant phenotypes of human colon HCT15 cells by continuously exposing them to incremental concentrations of the drug, and monitored expressions of aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) 1A1, 1B1, 1B10, 1C1, 1C2 and 1C3. Among the six AKRs, AKR1C1 and AKR1C3 are highly induced with the CDDP resistance. The resistance lowered the sensitivity towards cellular damages evoked by oxidative stress-derived aldehydes, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and 4-oxo-2-nonenal that are detoxified by AKR1C1 and AKR1C3. Overexpression of AKR1C1 or AKR1C3 in the parental HCT15 cells mitigated the cytotoxicity of the aldehydes and CDDP. Knockdown of both AKR1C1 and AKR1C3 in the resistant cells or treatment of the cells with specific inhibitors of the AKRs increased the sensitivity to CDDP toxicity. Thus, the two AKRs participate in the mechanism underlying the CDDP resistance probably via detoxification of the aldehydes resulting from enhanced oxidative stress. The resistant cells also showed an enhancement in proteolytic activity of proteasome accompanied by overexpression of its catalytic subunits (PSMβ9 and PSMβ10). Pretreatment of the resistant cells with a potent proteasome inhibitor Z-Leu-Leu-Leu-al augmented the CDDP sensitization elicited by the AKR inhibitors. Additionally, the treatment of the cells with Z-Leu-Leu-Leu-al and the AKR inhibitors induced the expressions of the two AKRs and proteasome subunits. Collectively, these results suggest the involvement of up-regulated AKR1C1, AKR1C3 and proteasome in CDDP resistance of colon cancers and support a chemotherapeutic role for their inhibitors.Chemico-biological interactions 11/2012; · 2.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The gold standard for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer consists of combination chemotherapy. Over time, however, the development of chemoresistant tumor clones leads to relapse. It may be possible to overcome oxaliplatin chemoresistance in colorectal cancer cells by exploiting a complex obtained from the insertion of the cyclohexane-1R,2R-diamine carrier ligand (the same diamine present in oxaliplatin) into an octahedral PtIV scaffold with high lipophilicity conferred by two benzoate axial ligands. Herein we report the synthesis, characterization (including X-ray structure), biological activity, and cellular accumulation of trans,cis,cis-bis(benzoato)dichlorido(cyclohexane-1R,2R-diamine)platinum(IV) complex in a panel of several human cancer cell lines, including a colon carcinoma cell line resistant to oxaliplatin. The compound under investigation shows the best performance in terms of in vitro anti-proliferative activity and ability to overcome chemoresistance, with respect to oxaliplatin and some other PtII reference complexes. This result is likely related to the high lipophilicity shown by the title compound that favors its cellular accumulation by passive diffusion.ChemMedChem 04/2014; · 2.84 Impact Factor