Article

Exercise and the metabolic syndrome with weight regain

Department of Nutrition and Exercise Physiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA.
Journal of Applied Physiology (Impact Factor: 3.43). 02/2010; 109(1):3-10. DOI: 10.1152/japplphysiol.01361.2009
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Weight loss improves metabolic syndrome (MetS) factors, but risk may return with weight regain. This study was designed to determine if exercise training can maintain improvements in MetS risk factors during weight regain. In a randomized control trial,102 overweight or obese (body mass index 25.0-39.9 kg/m(2)) men and women (age 21-52 yr), with characteristics of the MetS, lost 10% of body weight with supervised walking/jogging at 60% of maximal oxygen consumption (Vo(2 max)) (-400 kcal/session), 5 days/wk, and caloric restriction (-600 kcal/day) over a 4- to 6-mo period. After weight loss, 77 remaining subjects underwent programmed weight regain (+50% of lost weight) for 4-6 mo with random assignment to two groups: no exercise (NoEX) or continued supervised exercise (EX). Blood pressure, regional fat, glucose homeostasis, lipids, and inflammatory markers were assessed at baseline, post-weight loss, and post-weight regain. Groups were compared by two-way repeated-measures ANOVA on the 67 subjects. After weight loss (9.7 +/- 0.2% of body weight), significant (P < 0.05) improvements were observed in almost all parameters assessed. Following weight regain (54.4 +/- 1.6% of lost weight), the NoEX group exhibited deterioration in most metabolic markers, while the EX group maintained improvements in Vo(2 max), blood pressures, glucose homeostasis, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and LDL-C), oxidized LDL, and other markers of inflammation, but did not maintain improvements in triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations or abdominal fat. Results of this design of controlled human weight regain suggest that aerobic exercise can counter the detrimental effects of partial weight regain on many markers of disease risk.

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    • "Weight gain and obesity can have many negative health implications. Not only does it result in increased visceral or WAT but is associated with impaired glucose regulation (Thomas et al. 2010) and increased systemic inflammation . Visceral adiposity has been associated both with impaired peripheral insulin sensitivity (Kelley et al. 2000; Miyazaki et al. 2002) and adipose and hepatic insulin resistance (IR; Miyazaki et al. 2002). "
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    • "This study, which is the first to examine changes in bone mass and turnover during carefully controlled weight regain, found that weight-loss-induced perturbations in bone mass and turnover persisted after partial weight regain, regardless of whether regular, weight-bearing aerobic exercise was continued. However, it is important to note that continuation of aerobic exercise countered the detrimental effects of partial weight regain on many markers of the metabolic syndrome, as previously reported (Thomas et al. 2010). "
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