Revisiting the insect mitochondrial molecular clock: the mid-Aegean trench calibration.

Department of Entomology, Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom.
Molecular Biology and Evolution (Impact Factor: 14.31). 02/2010; 27(7):1659-72. DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msq051
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Phylogenetic trees in insects are frequently dated by applying a "standard" mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) clock estimated at 2.3% My(-1), but despite its wide use reliable calibration points have been lacking. Here, we used a well-established biogeographic barrier, the mid-Aegean trench separating the western and eastern Aegean archipelago, to estimate substitution rates in tenebrionid beetles. Cytochrome oxidase I (cox1) for six codistributed genera across 28 islands (444 individuals) on both sides of the mid-Aegean trench revealed 60 independently coalescing entities delimited with a mixed Yule-coalescent model. One representative per entity was used for phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial (cox1, 16S rRNA) and nuclear (Mp20, 28S rRNA) genes. Six nodes marked geographically congruent east-west splits whose separation was largely contemporaneous and likely to reflect the formation of the mid-Aegean trench at 9-12 Mya. Based on these "known" dates, a divergence rate of 3.54% My(-1) for the cox1 gene (2.69% when combined with the 16S rRNA gene) was obtained under the preferred partitioning scheme and substitution model selected using Bayes factors. An extensive survey suggests that discrepancies in mtDNA substitution rates in the entomological literature can be attributed to the use of different substitution models, the use of different mitochondrial gene regions, mixing of intraspecific with interspecific data, and not accounting for variance in coalescent times or postseparation gene flow. Different treatments of these factors in the literature confound estimates of mtDNA substitution rates in opposing directions and obscure lineage-specific differences in rates when comparing data from various sources.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cosmodela Rivalier, 1961, represents a genus of tiger beetles that currently contains 13 described species widely distributed across Southeast Asia. A phylogenetic analysis based on the mitochondrial DNA fragments 16S and COI and the nuclear marker wingless and a phylogeographic analysis using a COI fragment were carried out on two subspecies of Cosmodela aurulenta (C. a. juxtata and C. a. aurulenta). The results support the hypothesis that these two subspecies are significantly different to be considered as separate species that diverged during the Pleistocene. TAXONDNA analysis was used to investigate the capability of the COI region as a marker for discriminating both entities and to quantify intra- and intertaxa genetic variation. The minimum distance between C. aurulenta and C. juxtata was 2.7837%, and no overlap of intra- and intertaxa genetic divergence was observed. Both taxa, here considered as valid species, occur in sympatry in the Malay Peninsula, with C. aurulenta most probably originating from the area and C. juxtata a secondary colonizer that expanded southwards from the Asian mainland. Our data infer a continental origin of the Indonesian samples of C. aurulenta, and they most likely dispersed across the land bridges that emerged during glacial maxima to form Sundaland.
    Zoologica Scripta 03/2015; DOI:10.1111/zsc.12113 · 2.92 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The role of environmental factors in driving adaptive trajectories of living organisms is still being debated. This is even more important to understand when dealing with important neglected diseases and their vectors. In this paper, we analysed genetic divergence, computed from seven microsatellite loci, of 614 tsetse flies (Glossina palpalis gambiensis and Glossina palpalis palpalis, major vectors of animal and human trypanosomes) from 28 sites of West and Central Africa. We found that the two subspecies are so divergent that they deserve the species status. Controlling for geographic and time distances that separate these samples, which have a significant effect, we found that G. p. gambiensis from different landscapes (Niayes of Senegal, savannah and coastal environments) were significantly genetically different and thus represent different ecotypes or subspecies. We also confirm that G. p. palpalis from Ivory Coast, Cameroon and DRC are strongly divergent. These results provide an opportunity to examine whether new tsetse fly ecotypes might display different behaviour, dispersal patterns, host preferences and vectorial capacities. This work also urges a revision of taxonomic status of Glossina palpalis subspecies and highlights again how fast ecological divergence can be, especially in host-parasite-vector systems.
  • Source


Available from
Jul 29, 2014