Reassessment of antioxidant activity of arbutin: multifaceted evaluation using five antioxidant assay systems.
ABSTRACT Arbutin, a practically used skin-lightening agent, has been reported to possess a weak antioxidant activity compared to that of its precursor, hydroquinone. However, its antioxidant activity has not been systematically evaluated. Hence, this study reassessed its activity using five assay systems. Assays were first performed using model radicals, DPPH radical and ABTS(*+). Arbutin showed weak DPPH radical-scavenging activity compared to that of hydroquinone, but showed strong ABTS(*+)-scavenging activity. Its activity by ORAC assay was then evaluated using a physiologically relevant peroxyl radical. Arbutin exerted weak but long-lasting radical-scavenging activity and showed totally the same antioxidant activity as that of hydroquinone. Finally, it was shown that, in two cell-based antioxidant assays using erythrocytes and skin fibroblasts, arbutin exerted strong antioxidant activity comparable or even superior to that of hydroquinone. These findings indicate that the antioxidant activity of arbutin may have been under-estimated and suggest that it acts as a potent antioxidant in the skin.
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ABSTRACT: The genus Stachys is comprised of about 300 species spread throughout the world, hence representing one of the largest genera of the Lamiaceae. Several Stachys species have been exploited in traditional medicine as astringent, wound-healing, anti-diarrhoeal, anti-nephritic and anti-inflammatory agents. Moreover, antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of some Stachys species are documented. Iridoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids and diterpenoids are reported as secondary metabolites of different species of this genus. The aim of the present review is to summarize and to highlight the recent advances in current knowledge on Stachys species and to compile reports of chemical constituents isolated from the genus Stachys over the past decades, together with their structural features, biological activities, and structure-activity relationships. Diversity of chemical constituents is discussed in relationship with current Stachys infrageneric taxonomy, classification and relationships with systematically close genera.Phytochemistry 06/2014; 102:7-39. · 3.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Acute pulmonary thromboembolism (APT) is a critical condition associated with acute pulmonary hypertension. Recent studies suggest that oxidative stress and hemolysis contribute to APT-induced pulmonary hypertension, possibly as a result of increased nitric oxide (NO) consumption. We hypothesized that the antioxidant tempol could attenuate APT-induced hemolysis, and therefore attenuate APT-induced increases in plasma NO consumption. APT was induced in anesthetized sheep with autologous blood clots. The hemodynamic effects of tempol infused at 1.0mg/kg/min 30min after APT were determined. Hemodynamic measurements were carried out every 15min. To assess oxidative stress, serum 8-isoprostanes levels were measured by ELISA. Plasma cell-free hemoglobin concentrations and NO consumption by plasma samples were determined. An in vitro oxidative AAPH-induced hemolysis assay was used to further validate the in vivo effects of tempol. APT caused pulmonary hypertension, and increased pulmonary vascular resistance in proportion with the increases in 8-isoprostanes, plasma cell-free hemoglobin concentrations, and NO consumption by plasma (all P<0.05). Tempol attenuated the hemodynamic alterations by approximately 15-20% and blunted APT-induced increases in 8-isoprostanes, in cell-free hemoglobin concentrations, and the increases in NO consumption by plasma (P<0.05). Tempol dose-dependently attenuated AAPH-induced in vitro hemolysis (P<0.05). Our findings are consistent with the idea that antioxidant properties of tempol decrease APT-induced hemolysis and nitric oxide consumption, thus attenuating APT-induced pulmonary hypertension.Thrombosis Research 09/2013; · 2.43 Impact Factor
- Gastroenterology 01/2011; 140(5). · 12.82 Impact Factor