Prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections in France in 2004: Social factors are important predictors after adjusting for known risk factors
ABSTRACT To monitor the prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2004 among French metropolitan residents. A complex sampling design was used to enroll 14,416 adult participants aged 18-80 years. Data collected included demographic and social characteristics and risk factors. Sera were tested for anti-HCV, HCV-RNA, anti-HBc and HBsAg. Data were analyzed with SUDAAN software to provide weighted estimates for the French metropolitan resident population. The overall anti-HCV prevalence was 0.84% (95% CI: 0.65-1.10). Among anti-HCV positive individuals, 57.4% (95% CI: 43.2-70.5) knew their status. Factors associated independently with positive anti-HCV were drug use (intravenous and nasal), blood transfusion before 1992, a history of tattoos, low socioeconomic status, being born in a country where anti-HCV prevalence >2.5%, and age >29 years. The overall anti-HBc prevalence was 7.3% (95%: 6.5-8.2). Independent risk factors for anti-HBc were intravenous drug use, being a man who has sex with men, low socioeconomic status, a stay in a psychiatric facility or facility for the mentally disabled, <12 years of education, being born in a country where HBsAg prevalence >2%, age >29 and male sex. The HCV RNA and HBsAg prevalence were 0.53% (95% CI: 0.40-0.70) and 0.65% (95% CI: 0.45-0.93), respectively. Among HBsAg positive individuals, 44.8% (95% CI: 22.8-69.1) knew their status. Anti-HCV prevalence was close to the 1990s estimates whereas HBsAg prevalence estimate was greater than expected. Screening of hepatitis B and C should be strengthened and should account for social vulnerability.
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ABSTRACT: Occult hepatitis B virus infection (OBI) is a well-recognized clinical entity characterized by the detection of HBV DNA in serum and/or liver in the absence of detectable HBsAg. Diagnosis of OBI requires a sensitive HBV DNA assay. We aimed at determining the frequency of OBI in infants, born to HBsAg-positive mothers, who received immunoprophylaxis at birth. Sixty-four infants and children, born to HBsAg-positive mothers, who received hepatitis B immunoglobulin and HBV vaccine within 48 h after birth, were tested for HBV serological profile and HBV DNA by real-time PCR at least 1 month after last dose of HBV vaccine and not before 6 months of age. The median age of the studied infants and children was 8 months, ranging from 6 to 132 months; 54.7 % were females. HBV DNA was detected in 2 infants. One case had OBI; she was negative for HBsAg, anti-HBc total, HBeAg and was positive for anti-HBs (titer 267 mIU/mL) with low level of viremia (HBV DNA 1.13 x 10(3) IU/mL). Another infant showed immunoprophylaxis failure with positive HBsAg, anti-HBc total, HBeAg, negative anti-HBe and anti-HBs; HBV viral load was 1.7 × 10(8) IU/mL. Both mothers were HBsAg and HBeAg-positive. OBI may occur in infants born to HBsAg-positive mothers despite the receipt of immunoprophylaxis. OBI was detected in a low frequency in the present study. Anti-HBs positivity does not exclude OBI.Infection 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s15010-015-0733-6 · 2.86 Impact Factor
La Presse Médicale 12/2014; 44(2). DOI:10.1016/j.lpm.2014.06.034 · 1.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Mediterranean area and the Balkans in particular show the highest level of genetic heterogeneity of HBV in Europe. Data about the circulation of HBV genotypes in Montenegro are lacking. It was studied the prevalence and distribution of HBV genot/subgenotypes in a total of 150 HBV infected patients living in Montenegro. Phylogenetic analysis of 136 successfully amplified P sequences showed a high degree of genetic heterogeneity of HBV in Montenegro. Subgenotype D2 (36.8%) and D3 (32.3%) were the most prevalent, followed by genotype A (subgenotype A2 in all of the cases-19.8%). Eight patients were infected with recombinant strains. HBV-D1 which is the most spread HBV subgenotype in the south-eastern Mediterranean countries, seems to be relatively rare in Montenegro, suggesting a penetration of HBV more probably from North-East or West than from Eastern Mediterranean countries. The relatively different prevalence of D3 and A2 among subjects infected through sexual route, seems to confirm the association of these subgenotypes with different route of transmissions (mainly parenteral for D3 and mainly sexual for A2) even in Montenegro. The low prevalence of D2 among children and its absence in perinatal transmission, suggests that this subgenotype circulated prevalently in the past. If this is due to changes in the most prevalent way of transmission and in the recent different contacts of Montenegro with other European countries, it remains to be established by other larger studies. J. Med. Virol. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Journal of Medical Virology 02/2015; 87(5). DOI:10.1002/jmv.24083 · 2.22 Impact Factor