Prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections in France in 2004: Social factors are important predictors after adjusting for known risk factors
ABSTRACT To monitor the prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2004 among French metropolitan residents. A complex sampling design was used to enroll 14,416 adult participants aged 18-80 years. Data collected included demographic and social characteristics and risk factors. Sera were tested for anti-HCV, HCV-RNA, anti-HBc and HBsAg. Data were analyzed with SUDAAN software to provide weighted estimates for the French metropolitan resident population. The overall anti-HCV prevalence was 0.84% (95% CI: 0.65-1.10). Among anti-HCV positive individuals, 57.4% (95% CI: 43.2-70.5) knew their status. Factors associated independently with positive anti-HCV were drug use (intravenous and nasal), blood transfusion before 1992, a history of tattoos, low socioeconomic status, being born in a country where anti-HCV prevalence >2.5%, and age >29 years. The overall anti-HBc prevalence was 7.3% (95%: 6.5-8.2). Independent risk factors for anti-HBc were intravenous drug use, being a man who has sex with men, low socioeconomic status, a stay in a psychiatric facility or facility for the mentally disabled, <12 years of education, being born in a country where HBsAg prevalence >2%, age >29 and male sex. The HCV RNA and HBsAg prevalence were 0.53% (95% CI: 0.40-0.70) and 0.65% (95% CI: 0.45-0.93), respectively. Among HBsAg positive individuals, 44.8% (95% CI: 22.8-69.1) knew their status. Anti-HCV prevalence was close to the 1990s estimates whereas HBsAg prevalence estimate was greater than expected. Screening of hepatitis B and C should be strengthened and should account for social vulnerability.
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ABSTRACT: Occult hepatitis B virus infection (OBI) is a well-recognized clinical entity characterized by the detection of HBV DNA in serum and/or liver in the absence of detectable HBsAg. Diagnosis of OBI requires a sensitive HBV DNA assay. We aimed at determining the frequency of OBI in infants, born to HBsAg-positive mothers, who received immunoprophylaxis at birth. Sixty-four infants and children, born to HBsAg-positive mothers, who received hepatitis B immunoglobulin and HBV vaccine within 48 h after birth, were tested for HBV serological profile and HBV DNA by real-time PCR at least 1 month after last dose of HBV vaccine and not before 6 months of age. The median age of the studied infants and children was 8 months, ranging from 6 to 132 months; 54.7 % were females. HBV DNA was detected in 2 infants. One case had OBI; she was negative for HBsAg, anti-HBc total, HBeAg and was positive for anti-HBs (titer 267 mIU/mL) with low level of viremia (HBV DNA 1.13 x 10(3) IU/mL). Another infant showed immunoprophylaxis failure with positive HBsAg, anti-HBc total, HBeAg, negative anti-HBe and anti-HBs; HBV viral load was 1.7 × 10(8) IU/mL. Both mothers were HBsAg and HBeAg-positive. OBI may occur in infants born to HBsAg-positive mothers despite the receipt of immunoprophylaxis. OBI was detected in a low frequency in the present study. Anti-HBs positivity does not exclude OBI.Infection 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s15010-015-0733-6 · 2.86 Impact Factor
La Presse Médicale 12/2014; 44(2). DOI:10.1016/j.lpm.2014.06.034 · 1.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In France, 190 306 patients were suffering from chronic hepatitis C in 2012. These patients have a decreased life expectancy and are susceptible to complications associated with chronic hepatitis. Current treatments are poorly tolerated and their effectiveness varies depending on the genotype of the virus. Sofosbuvir, a new class of treatment, has demonstrated in five phase III trials sustained viral response (SVR) rates of over 90% across genotypes, higher than current treatments and has a tolerance profile similar to placebo. The objective was to determine the cost-effectiveness of using sofosbuvir in the treatment of chronic HCV infection. A Markov model was used to compare treatment strategies with and without sofosbuvir. The model simulated the natural history of HCV infection. SVR rates were based on data from clinical trials. Utilities associated with different stages of disease were based on data from the literature. French direct medical costs were used. Price for sofosbuvir was the price used in the early access program for severe fibrosis stages. The incremental cost–effectiveness ratio for sofosbuvir versus current reference treatments was € 16 278/QALY and varied from 40 000 €/QALY for F0 stages to 12 080 €/QALY for F4 stages. The sensitivity analyses carried out confirmed the robustness of this result. Sofosbuvir is a cost-effective treatment option for patients with hepatitis C.Journal of Viral Hepatitis 09/2014; DOI:10.1111/jvh.12311 · 3.31 Impact Factor