Hepatitis C virus infection in a Japanese leprosy sanatorium for the past 67 years
ABSTRACT Oku-Komyo-En is one of the national leprosy sanatoria, located on a small island in Setouchi city, Okayama prefecture of Japan since 1938. Since autopsies were carried out routinely on almost all patients who had died in the sanatorium up to 1980, approximately 1,000 formalin-fixed autopsy tissue samples were available for analysis. When these samples were reviewed, the pathological data indicated a sharp rise in the death rate caused by cirrhosis of the liver and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) since 1960 and 1970, respectively. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a common cause of HCC in Japan. The presence of HCV RNA was demonstrated in paraffin sections prepared from the autopsied liver tissue fixed in formalin for a prolonged period of time, by employing nested RT-PCR using type-specific primers. The data showed that HCV RNA was detectable in samples of the liver archived as early as 1940, representing the liver tissues kept in formalin for up to 67 years. HCV genotypes 1b and 2a were found by RT-PCR at 85.7% and 14.3%, respectively, in patients with leprosy.
- SourceAvailable from: Yutaka Tsutsumi
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- "Total RNA was extracted from dewaxed sections using RecoverAll Total Nucleic Acid Isolation kit (Applied Biosytems, Austin, TX, USA), according to the manufacturer's protocol, and stored at −80 ∘ C until use. Nested RT-PCR for HCV genotyping was performed, as described previously . "
ABSTRACT: Background. In situ hybridization (ISH) with high sensitivity has been requested to demonstrate hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) sections of the liver. Methods. ISH employing a locked-nucleic-acid- (LNA-)modified oligonucleotide probe and biotin-free catalyzed signal amplification system (CSAII) was applied to HCV-RNA detection in the liver tissue. Nested reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed for HCV genotyping using total RNA extracted from FFPE sections. The target tissues included FFPE tissue sections of humanized livers in HCV-infected chimeric mice (HCV genotypes 1a, 1b, and 2a and noninfected) and of needle-biopsied livers from HCV-infected patients. Results. HCV-RNA was demonstrated with the ISH technique in HCV-infected liver tissues from both chimeric mice and 9 (82%) of 11 patients with HCV infection. The HCV signals were sensitive to RNase. Nested RT-PCR confirmed the genotype in 8 (73%) of 11 livers (type 1b: 6 lesions and type 2a: 2 lesions). HCV-RNA was not identified in chronic hepatitis B lesions, fatty liver, autoimmune hepatitis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Conclusion. ISH using the LNA-modified oligonucleotide probe and CSAII was applicable to detecting HCV-RNA in routinely prepared FFPE liver specimens.06/2013; 2013:249535. DOI:10.1155/2013/249535
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- "It is unknown if injured skin resulting from leprosy may facilitate the spread of bloodborne infectious agents. However, reports such as that by Shiogama et al. (2010) have indicated a progressive increase in the liver-related death rate among inpatients of a Japanese sanatorium and there was a high rate of detection of HCV RNA in liver specimens obtained by necropsy, suggesting that blood-borne hepatitis viruses may circulate at higher rates among these individuals. There are few studies assessing the prevalence of viral hepatitis among leprosy patients in Brazil, but none have been performed in MT (Ottati & Candeias 1979, Rosa et al. 1992, 1996). "
ABSTRACT: Leprosy and hepatitis B virus (HBV) are highly endemic in some regions of the state of Mato Grosso, in central Brazil. The association of leprosy with HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) was assessed using a seroprevalence study and 191 leprosy outpatients were included. Demographic data and the clinical classification of leprosy were recorded. Evidence of previous HBV infection was present in 53 patients (27.7%, 95% confidence interval: 21.9-34.5) and two (1%) were HBsAg positive. Five (2.6%) had antibodies to HCV. The prevalence of previous exposure to HBV was higher than expected for an adult population in central Brazil. In contrast, the prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies was not much higher regarding the age range of participants. HBV markers were associated with a higher number of sex partners and the use of injections without proper sterilisation of the syringes. The number of HBV carriers was small, suggesting that there was no increased likelihood of chronification among these patients.Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 08/2011; 106(5):632-4. DOI:10.1590/S0074-02762011000500019 · 1.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Clin Microbiol Infect 2012; 18: 260–267 Japanese spotted fever (JSF) is caused by Rickettsia japonica, and lethal cases are reported yearly in southwest Japan. We thus established the method of diagnosing JSF by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and real-time PCR (RT-PCR) using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded skin biopsy specimens. Two monoclonal antibodies were used for IHC, and the 17k genus common antigen gene served as the target of RT-PCR. We collected skin biopsy (n = 61) and autopsy (n = 1) specimens from 50 patients clinically suspected of JSF. Immunohistochemically, the rickettsial antigens were localized as coarse dots in the cytoplasm of endothelial cells and macrophages. Thirty-one seropositive cases plus one autopsy case (group A) and nine seronegative cases but with positive IHC and/or RT-PCR (group B) were judged as JSF. Nine cases were regarded as non-JSF disorders based on negative serology, IHC and RT-PCR (group C). Of 50 biopsies (eschar 34, eruptions 10, and scabs 6) from groups A and B, IHC and RT-PCR positivities were 94% (32/34) and 62% (21/34) for eschar, 80% (8/10) and 30% (3/10) for eruptions, and 33% (2/6) and 50% (3/6) for scabs. For IHC, eschar was most suitable, and scabs were insufficient. Unexpectedly, 18 biopsies happened to be fixed in 100% formalin, and this lowered the detection rate by RT-PCR, but IHC was tolerant. Sequence analysis using five skin biopsy specimens confirmed a 114 bp DNA stretch homologous to that reported for the target gene of R. japonica. In 26 (84%) of the 31 seropositive patients, the diagnosis was made by IHC and/or RT-PCR earlier than serology.Clinical Microbiology and Infection 05/2011; 18(3):260-7. DOI:10.1111/j.1469-0691.2011.03569.x · 5.20 Impact Factor