[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article gives contemporary review on the forearm approach for percutaneous diagnostic and interventional coronary procedures. Advantages and disadvantages as well as practical issues and current controversies regarding both radial and ulnar artery approach are discussed throughout the paper. Having in mind advantages of forearm approach in terms of safety and comfort over the traditional femoral approach, as well as the rapid development of invasive technology in the past years, it will probably become the default vascular approach for all percutaneous coronary procedures in the near future.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The arteries of the upper extremities are increasingly utilized to gain access for angiography, percutaneous coronary interventions, endovascular therapy, and continuous hemodynamic monitoring. Hence, complications after upper-extremity arterial interventions are increasing in incidence. Similarly, the incidence of upper-extremity deep venous thrombosis is increasing as venous access is increasingly achieved with upper-extremity central line placement. Knowledge of the sonographic appearance of these complications is essential as ultrasound is often the only imaging modality used in the evaluation of suspected vascular injury. This pictorial review demonstrates the spectrum of complications observed following vascular procedures in the upper extremities, including thrombosis, hematoma, pseudoaneurysm, arteriovenous fistula, and arterial dissection. Gray-scale, color, and pulsed Doppler imaging findings are described, and pertinent management issues, including endovascular and surgical therapies, are briefly discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adoption of the transradial approach for coronary procedures is rapidly growing in the US. A decrease in vascular complications and improved patient comfort are the primary benefits of this technique compared to femoral artery access. However, as this is still an invasive procedure, it is important for operators who utilize this technique to be aware of the known complications that are associated with radial access. Radial artery occlusion and spasm are the most common issues that occur with transradial procedures. Vascular complications such as perforations, forearm hematomas and pseudoaneurysm formation are much less common.
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