The effect of GHRH antagonists on human glioblastomas and their mechanism of action

Veterans Affairs Medical Center and South Florida Veterans Affairs Foundation for Research and Education, Miami, FL 33125, USA.
International Journal of Cancer (Impact Factor: 5.09). 11/2010; 127(10):2313-22. DOI: 10.1002/ijc.25259
Source: PubMed


The effects of new growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) antagonists JMR-132 and MIA-602 and their mechanism of action were investigated on 2 human glioblastoma cell lines, DBTRG-05 and U-87MG, in vitro and in vivo. GHRH receptors and their main splice variant, SV1 were found on both cell lines. After treatment with JMR-132 or MIA-602, the cell viability decreased significantly. A major decrease in the levels of phospho-Akt, phospho-GSK3β and phosho-ERK 1/2 was detected at 5 and 10 min following treatment with the GHRH antagonists, whereas elevated levels of phospho-p38 were observed at 24 hr. The expression of caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) (PARP), as the downstream executioners of apoptosis were found to be significantly elevated after treatment. Following treatment of the glioblastoma cells with GHRH antagonists, nuclear translocation of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) and Endonuclease G (Endo G) and the mitochondrial release of cytochrome c (cyt c) were detected, indicating that the cells were undergoing apoptosis. In cells treated with GHRH antagonists, the collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential was shown with fluorescence microscopy and JC-1 membrane potential sensitive dye. There were no significant differences between results obtained in DBTRG-05 or U-87MG cell lines. After treatment with MIA-602 and JMR-132, the reduction rate in the growth of DBTRG-05 glioblastoma, xenografted into nude mice, was significant and tumor doubling time was also significantly extended when compared with controls. Our study demonstrates that GHRH antagonists induce apoptosis through key proapoptotic pathways and shows the efficacy of MIA-602 for experimental treatment of glioblastoma.

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