The effect of GHRH antagonists on human glioblastomas and their mechanism of action

Veterans Affairs Medical Center and South Florida Veterans Affairs Foundation for Research and Education, Miami, FL 33125, USA.
International Journal of Cancer (Impact Factor: 5.01). 11/2010; 127(10):2313-22. DOI: 10.1002/ijc.25259
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The effects of new growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) antagonists JMR-132 and MIA-602 and their mechanism of action were investigated on 2 human glioblastoma cell lines, DBTRG-05 and U-87MG, in vitro and in vivo. GHRH receptors and their main splice variant, SV1 were found on both cell lines. After treatment with JMR-132 or MIA-602, the cell viability decreased significantly. A major decrease in the levels of phospho-Akt, phospho-GSK3β and phosho-ERK 1/2 was detected at 5 and 10 min following treatment with the GHRH antagonists, whereas elevated levels of phospho-p38 were observed at 24 hr. The expression of caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) (PARP), as the downstream executioners of apoptosis were found to be significantly elevated after treatment. Following treatment of the glioblastoma cells with GHRH antagonists, nuclear translocation of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) and Endonuclease G (Endo G) and the mitochondrial release of cytochrome c (cyt c) were detected, indicating that the cells were undergoing apoptosis. In cells treated with GHRH antagonists, the collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential was shown with fluorescence microscopy and JC-1 membrane potential sensitive dye. There were no significant differences between results obtained in DBTRG-05 or U-87MG cell lines. After treatment with MIA-602 and JMR-132, the reduction rate in the growth of DBTRG-05 glioblastoma, xenografted into nude mice, was significant and tumor doubling time was also significantly extended when compared with controls. Our study demonstrates that GHRH antagonists induce apoptosis through key proapoptotic pathways and shows the efficacy of MIA-602 for experimental treatment of glioblastoma.

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    ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma (GB) is the most frequent brain tumor. Despite recent improvement in therapeutic strategies, the prognosis of GB remains poor. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) may act as a growth factor; antagonists of GHRH have been successfully applied for experimental treatment of different types of tumors. The expression profile of GHRH receptor, its main splice variant SV1 and GHRH have not been investigated in human GB tissue samples. We examined the expression of GHRH, full-length pituitary-type GHRH receptor (pGHRHR), its functional splice variant SV1 and non-functional SV2 by RT-PCR in 23 human GB specimens. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and phosphatase and tensin homolog gene (PTEN) expression levels were also evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR. Correlations between clinico-pathological parameters and gene expressions were analyzed. Expression of GHRH was found to be positive in 61.9 % of samples. pGHRH receptor was not expressed in our sample set, while SV1 could be detected in 17.4 % and SV2 in 8.6 % of the GB tissues. In 65.2 and 78.3 % of samples, significant EGFR over-expression or PTEN under-representation could be detected, respectively. In 47.8 % of cases, EGFR up-regulation and PTEN down-regulation occurred together. Survival was significantly poorer in tumors lacking GHRH expression. This worse prognosis in GHRH negative group remained significant even if SV1 was also expressed. Our study shows that GHRH and SV1 genes expressed in human GB samples and their expression patterns are associated with poorer prognosis.
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    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2014; DOI:10.1073/pnas.1323102111 · 9.81 Impact Factor


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