Dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate as a biomarker for mucopolysaccharidosis I

Department of Pediatrics, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO 63104, USA.
Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease (Impact Factor: 4.14). 02/2010; 33(2):141-50. DOI: 10.1007/s10545-009-9036-3
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of alpha-L-iduronidase leading to accumulation of its catabolic substrates, dermatan sulfate (DS) and heparan sulfate (HS), in lysosomes. This results in progressive multiorgan dysfunction and death in early childhood. The recent success of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for MPS I highlights the need for biomarkers that reflect response to such therapy. To determine which biochemical markers are better, we determined serum and urine DS and HS levels by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in ERT-treated MPS I patients. The group included one Hurler, 11 Hurler/Scheie, and two Scheie patients. Seven patients were treated from week 1, whereas the other seven were treated from week 26. Serum and urine DS (DeltaDi-4S/6S) and HS (DeltaDiHS-0S, DeltaDiHS-NS) were measured at baseline, week 26, and week 72. Serum DeltaDi-4S/6S, DeltaDiHS-0S, and DeltaDiHS-NS levels decreased by 72%, 56%, and 56%, respectively, from baseline at week 72. Urinary glycosaminoglycan level decreased by 61.2%, whereas urine DeltaDi-4S/6S, DeltaDiHS-0S, and DeltaDiHS-NS decreased by 66.8%, 71.8%, and 71%, respectively. Regardless of age and clinical severity, all patients showed marked decrease of DS and HS in blood and urine samples. We also evaluated serum DS and HS from dried blood-spot samples of three MPS I newborn patients, showing marked elevation of DS and HS levels compared with those in control newborns. In conclusion, blood and urine levels of DS and HS provide an intrinsic monitoring and screening tool for MPS I patients.

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    ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I; Hurler Syndrome) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of the enzyme α-L-iduronidase which affects multiple organs such as central nervous system (CNS), skeletal system, and physical appearance. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is recommended as a primary therapeutic option at an early stage of MPS I with a severe form to ameliorate CNS involvement; however, no description of pathological improvement in skeletal dysplasia has been investigated to date. We here report a 15-year-old male case with MPS I post-HSCT. This patient received successful HSCT at the age of 2 years and 1 month, followed for over 10 years. His activity of daily living including cognitive performance has been kept normal and the present height and weight are 162 cm and 55 kg. Bone deformity has been still developed, resulting in hemiepiphysiodesis of bilateral medial proximal tibia at 12 years of age and successive arthrodesis of thoraco-lumbar spine at 13 years of age; however, skeletal histopathology from surgical remnants showed substantial improvement in bone lesion with markedly reduced occurrence and cell size of vacuolated cells. After a series of surgical procedures, he became ambulant and independent in daily activity. The levels of GAGs in blood were substantially reduced. In conclusion, this long-term post-HSCT observation should shed light on a new aspect of therapeutic effect associated with skeletal pathology and GAG levels as a biomarker, indicating that HSCT is a primary choice at an early stage for not only CNS but skeletal system in combination of appropriate surgical procedures.
    03/2015; 2. DOI:10.1016/j.ymgmr.2014.12.006
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    ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a group of lysosomal storage disorders caused by the deficiency of lysosomal enzymes. The enzymes are required to break down glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) that help build bone, cartilage, tendons, corneas, skin and connective tissue. In patients with MPS, a missing enzyme leads to the accumulation of GAGs in the cells, blood, connective tissues, and multiple organs. The consequence is permanent, with progressive cellular damage affecting patients' appearance, physical abilities, organ and system function, and skeletal and mental development. The measurement of each specific GAG in a variety of specimens is required to establish the correlation between GAGs and physiological status of patients and/or prognosis and pathogenesis of the disease and to separate the patients with MPS from the healthy controls. We have developed a highly accurate, sensitive, and cost-effective liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for measurements of disaccharides derived from four specific GAGs [chondroitin sulfate (CS), dermatan sulfate (DS), heparan sulfate (HS), and keratan sulfate (KS)]. Disaccharides were produced by specific enzyme digestion of each GAG, and subsequently, quantified by negative ion mode of multiple reaction monitoring. Subclasses of GAGs with the same molecular weights can be separated by liquid chromatography. We have also developed another GAG assay by high-throughput mass spectrometry (HT-MS/MS). The HT-MS/MS consists of an integrated solid phase extraction robot that binds and de-salts samples from assay plates and directly injects them into a MS/MS detector, reducing sample processing time to within ten seconds. HT-MS/MS consequently yields much faster throughput than conventional LC-MS/MS-based methods; however, the HT-MS/MS system does not use a chromatographic step, and therefore, cannot separate GAGs that have the same molecular weights. Both techniques can be applied to the analysis of dried blood spots, blood, and urine specimens. In this review, we describe the assay methods for GAGs and the application to newborn screening and diagnosis of MPS.
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a progressive lysosomal storage disease. Impaired degradation of glycosaminoglycans triggers complex pathophysiological cascades, leading to a heterogeneous multisystem disorder. Two treatment modalities are available: enzyme replacement therapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Despite these treatments, a significant residual disease burden is observed in most patients.Areas covered: This review provides an overview of the currently known pathophysiological mechanisms underlying disease manifestations in MPS I. Additionally, the clinical presentation of the wide phenotypic spectrum is discussed, as well as methods for the phenotypical classification of patients and available treatment options, with a special focus on the treatment of residual disease.Expert opinion: Residual disease is currently the most pressing issue in MPS I, often requiring multiple surgical interventions. Several strategies are being explored to decrease the residual disease burden including modifications to the current treatment regimens and new therapeutic approaches. Optimal management of disease manifestations requires international collaboration and a standardized follow-up to collect essential clinical data.
    02/2015; DOI:10.1517/21678707.2015.1016908