Dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate as a biomarker for mucopolysaccharidosis I
ABSTRACT Mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of alpha-L-iduronidase leading to accumulation of its catabolic substrates, dermatan sulfate (DS) and heparan sulfate (HS), in lysosomes. This results in progressive multiorgan dysfunction and death in early childhood. The recent success of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for MPS I highlights the need for biomarkers that reflect response to such therapy. To determine which biochemical markers are better, we determined serum and urine DS and HS levels by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in ERT-treated MPS I patients. The group included one Hurler, 11 Hurler/Scheie, and two Scheie patients. Seven patients were treated from week 1, whereas the other seven were treated from week 26. Serum and urine DS (DeltaDi-4S/6S) and HS (DeltaDiHS-0S, DeltaDiHS-NS) were measured at baseline, week 26, and week 72. Serum DeltaDi-4S/6S, DeltaDiHS-0S, and DeltaDiHS-NS levels decreased by 72%, 56%, and 56%, respectively, from baseline at week 72. Urinary glycosaminoglycan level decreased by 61.2%, whereas urine DeltaDi-4S/6S, DeltaDiHS-0S, and DeltaDiHS-NS decreased by 66.8%, 71.8%, and 71%, respectively. Regardless of age and clinical severity, all patients showed marked decrease of DS and HS in blood and urine samples. We also evaluated serum DS and HS from dried blood-spot samples of three MPS I newborn patients, showing marked elevation of DS and HS levels compared with those in control newborns. In conclusion, blood and urine levels of DS and HS provide an intrinsic monitoring and screening tool for MPS I patients.
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ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are caused by deficiency of one of a group of specific lysosomal enzymes, resulting in excessive accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). We previously developed GAG assay methods using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS); however, it takes 4-5 min per sample for analysis. For the large numbers of samples in a screening program, a more rapid process is desirable. The automated high-throughput mass spectrometry (HT-MS/MS) system (RapidFire) integrates a solid phase extraction robot to concentrate and desalt samples prior to direction into the MS/MS without chromatographic separation; thereby allowing each sample to be processed within 10 s (enabling screening of more than one million samples per year). The aim of this study was to develop a higher throughput system to assay heparan sulfate (HS) using HT-MS/MS, and to compare its reproducibility, sensitivity and specificity with conventional LC-MS/MS.Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 09/2014; 113(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.ymgme.2014.07.008 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Biomarkers are extremely important in the case of multisystemic diseases, such as lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs), which are often difficult to assess in clinical practice. Several studies demonstrated significant alterations in the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) components in LSD patients, raising important questions in relation to their possible involvement in disease pathogenesis and providing evidence for their possible utility as disease biomarkers. This article provides an overview of the possible pathogenic correlations between LSDs and ECM. Data regarding the expression of these molecules are discussed. Finally, the possible implication of ECM components as therapeutic targets in this group of diseases along with the impact of the differential expression of these components in current LSD treatment will be critically addressed.FEBS letters 02/2013; 587(8). DOI:10.1016/j.febslet.2013.02.035 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a group of lysosomal storage disorders caused by the deficiency of lysosomal enzymes. The enzymes are required to break down glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) that help build bone, cartilage, tendons, corneas, skin and connective tissue. In patients with MPS, a missing enzyme leads to the accumulation of GAGs in the cells, blood, connective tissues, and multiple organs. The consequence is permanent, with progressive cellular damage affecting patients' appearance, physical abilities, organ and system function, and skeletal and mental development. The measurement of each specific GAG in a variety of specimens is required to establish the correlation between GAGs and physiological status of patients and/or prognosis and pathogenesis of the disease and to separate the patients with MPS from the healthy controls. We have developed a highly accurate, sensitive, and cost-effective liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for measurements of disaccharides derived from four specific GAGs [chondroitin sulfate (CS), dermatan sulfate (DS), heparan sulfate (HS), and keratan sulfate (KS)]. Disaccharides were produced by specific enzyme digestion of each GAG, and subsequently, quantified by negative ion mode of multiple reaction monitoring. Subclasses of GAGs with the same molecular weights can be separated by liquid chromatography. We have also developed another GAG assay by high-throughput mass spectrometry (HT-MS/MS). The HT-MS/MS consists of an integrated solid phase extraction robot that binds and de-salts samples from assay plates and directly injects them into a MS/MS detector, reducing sample processing time to within ten seconds. HT-MS/MS consequently yields much faster throughput than conventional LC-MS/MS-based methods; however, the HT-MS/MS system does not use a chromatographic step, and therefore, cannot separate GAGs that have the same molecular weights. Both techniques can be applied to the analysis of dried blood spots, blood, and urine specimens. In this review, we describe the assay methods for GAGs and the application to newborn screening and diagnosis of MPS.