Influence of gallate esterification on the activity of procyanidin B2 in androgen-dependent human prostate carcinoma LNCaP cells.
ABSTRACT Present study assessed the influence of gallate esterification on the anti-cancer activity of procyanidin B2 (B2) in androgen-dependent human prostate carcinoma LNCaP cells employing B2-3,3'-di-O-gallate (B2-G(2)), two mono-gallate esters B2-3-O-gallate (B2-3G) and B2-3'-O-gallate (B2-3'G) and the parent compound B2, all isolated from grape seed extract (GSE).
Study compounds were isolated from GSE by several chromatographic steps and structures determined by a combination of enzymatic hydrolysis, mass spectrometry and comparisons with standards. Cells, treated with these compounds, were assessed for viability and apoptosis and examined by western blotting.
Gallate esters B2-G(2), B2-3G and B2-3'G significantly decreased LNCaP cell viability; however, B2 and gallic acid were ineffective. Furthermore, only B2-G(2) also significantly decreased cell growth. Decreases in cell viability were largely due to apoptosis induction with B2-G(2) and B2-3'G exhibiting comparable effects, whereas B2-3G was less effective. In mechanistic studies, B2-G(2) and B2-3'G treatments caused caspases-9 and -3 and PARP cleavage, and down-regulated Bcl-2, Bcl-Xl and androgen receptor levels.
Together, our findings demonstrate anti-PCA efficacy of B2-G(2) and suggest that a gallate ester moiety at 3' position of procyanidin B2 contributes more extensively toward the biological activity of the di-gallate ester than esterification of position 3.
Article: Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effects Triggered by Grape Seed Extract (GSE) versus Epigallocatechin and Procyanidins on Colon Cancer Cell Lines.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Grape seed extract has been proven to exert anticancer effects on different tumors. These effects are mainly ascribed to catechin and procyanidin content. Analytical studies demonstrated that grape seed extract composition is complex and it is likely other components could exert biological activities. Using cell count and flow cytometry assays, we evaluated the cytostatic and apoptotic effects produced by three different grape seed extracts from Italia, Palieri and Red Globe cultivars, on Caco2 and HCT-8 colon cancer cells. These effects were compared to those induced by epigallocatechin and procyanidins, alone or in association, on the same cell lines. All the extracts induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in Caco2 and HCT-8 cells, along the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. On both cell lines, growth inhibition induced by Italia and Palieri grape seed extracts was significantly higher than that it has been recorded with epigallocatechin, procyanidins and their association. In Caco2 cells, the extract from Red Globe cultivar was less effective in inducing growth inhibition than procyanidins alone and in association with epigallocatechin, whereas, in HCT-8 cells, only the association of epigallocatechin and procyanidins triggers a significant proliferation decrease. On both cell lines, apoptosis induced by Italia, Palieri and Red Globe grape seed extracts was considerably higher than has been recorded with epigallocatechin, procyanidins and their association. These data support the hypothesis by which other compounds, present in the grape seed extracts, are likely to enhance the anticancer effects.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2012; 13(1):651-64. · 2.60 Impact Factor