Phenotypic approaches to gene mapping in platelet function disorders Identification of new variant of P2Y12, TxA2 and GPVI receptors
ABSTRACT Platelet number or function disorders cause a range of bleeding symptoms from mild to severe. Patients with platelet dysfunction but normal platelet number are the most prevalent and typically have mild bleeding symptoms. The study of this group of patients is particularly difficult because of the lack of a gold-standard test of platelet function and the variable penetrance of the bleeding phenotype among affected individuals. The purpose of this short review is to discuss the way in which this group of patients can be investigated through platelet phenotyping in combination with targeted gene sequencing. This approach has been used recently to identify patients with mutations in key platelet activation receptors, namely those for ADP, collagen and thromboxane A2 (TxA2). One interesting finding from this work is that for some patients, mild bleeding is associated with heterozygous mutations in platelet proteins that are co-inherited with other genetic disorders of haemostasis such as type 1 von Willebrand's disease. Thus, the phenotype of mild bleeding may be multifactorial in some patients and may be considered to be a complex trait.
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- "DNA-based diagnosis of MYH9- related renal disease therefore allows identification of susceptible individuals and early intervention to reduce disease progression. Similar approaches have identified the genes underlying a large number of inherited platelet disorders (Watson et al, 2010). "
ABSTRACT: Inherited platelet function disorders (PFDs), associated with normal or reduced platelet counts, account for a significant proportion of bleeding diatheses. Identification of the underlying genetic defects is difficult in the majority of cases due to the variable clinical expression of the bleeding symptoms and the redundancy of platelet receptor and signalling pathways, which add to the complexity of diagnosis. The gold standard method for phenotyping platelets, light transmission aggregometry (LTA), has allowed classification of functional defects in the majority of patients referred for investigation of suspected PFDs, while DNA-based analysis has primarily played a confirmatory role and been restricted mainly to analysis of candidate genes. Recent advances in next generation sequencing have facilitated the identification of gene defects in patients with PFDs where the underlying genetic defect was previously unknown, especially when combined with genome-wide linkage analysis. These studies have provided new insights into the mechanisms controlling platelet formation and function, and it is likely that, as understanding of the relationships between platelet phenotype and genotype increases and pipelines for the interpretation of genetic variations identified in patients are developed, DNA-based analysis will play an increasingly important role in the first-line investigation of patients with PFDs.British Journal of Haematology 01/2014; 165(2). DOI:10.1111/bjh.12751 · 4.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The investigation of children with suspected inherited platelet disorders is challenging. The causes of mucocutaneous bleeding are many, and specialized testing for platelet disorders can be difficult to access or interpret. An algorithm developed for the investigation of suspected platelet disorders provides a sequential approach to evaluating both platelet function abnormalities and thrombocytopenia. Investigation begins with a clinical evaluation and laboratory testing that is generally available, including platelet counting, peripheral blood cell morphology, and aggregometry. Based on results of initial investigations, the algorithm recommends specialized testing for specific diagnoses, including flow cytometry, immunofluorescence microscopy, electron microscopy, and mutational analysis.Pediatric Blood & Cancer 06/2011; 56(6):975-83. DOI:10.1002/pbc.22988 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Genetic defects of platelet function give rise to mucocutaneous bleeding of varying severity because platelets fail to fulfil their haemostatic role after vessel injury. Abnormalities of pathways involving glycoprotein (GP) mediators of adhesion (Bernard-Soulier syndrome, platelet-type von Willebrand disease) and aggregation (Glanzmann thrombasthenia) are the most studied and affect the GPIb-IX-V complex and integrin αIIbβ3, respectively. Leukocyte adhesion deficiency-III combines Glanzmann thrombasthenia with infections and defects of kindlin-3, a mediator of integrin activation. Agonist-specific deficiencies in platelet aggregation relate to mutations of primary receptors for ADP (P2Y(12)), thromboxane A(2) (TXA2R) and collagen (GPVI); however, selective abnormalities of intracellular signalling pathways remain better understood in mouse models. Defects of secretion from δ-granules are accompanied by pigment defects in the Hermansky-Pudlak and Chediak-Higashi syndromes; they concern multiple genes and protein complexes involved in secretory organelle biogenesis and function. Quebec syndrome is linked to a tandem duplication of the urokinase plasminogen activator (PLAU) gene while locus assignment to chromosome 3p has advanced the search for the gene(s) responsible for α-granule deficiency in the gray platelet syndrome. Defects of α-granule biosynthesis also involve germline VPS33B mutations in the ARC (arthrogryposis, renal dysfunction and cholestasis) syndrome. A mutation in transmembrane protein 16F (TMEM16F) has been linked to a defective procoagulant activity and phosphatidylserine expression in the Scott syndrome. Cytoskeletal dysfunction (with platelet anisotrophy) occurs not only in the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome but also in filamin A deficiency or MYH9-related disease while GATA1 mutations or RUNX1 haploinsufficiency can affect expression of multiple platelet proteins.Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 07/2011; 9 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):76-91. DOI:10.1111/j.1538-7836.2011.04274.x · 5.55 Impact Factor