Equivalence in dose fall-off for isocentric and nonisocentric intracranial treatment modalities and its impact on dose fractionation schemes.
ABSTRACT To investigate whether dose fall-off characteristics would be significantly different among intracranial radiosurgery modalities and the influence of these characteristics on fractionation schemes in terms of normal tissue sparing.
An analytic model was developed to measure dose fall-off characteristics near the target independent of treatment modalities. Variations in the peripheral dose fall-off characteristics were then examined and compared for intracranial tumors treated with Gamma Knife, Cyberknife, or Novalis LINAC-based system. Equivalent uniform biologic effective dose (EUBED) for the normal brain tissue was calculated. Functional dependence of the normal brain EUBED on varying numbers of fractions (1 to 30) was studied for the three modalities.
The derived model fitted remarkably well for all the cases (R(2) > 0.99). No statistically significant differences in the dose fall-off relationships were found between the three modalities. Based on the extent of variations in the dose fall-off curves, normal brain EUBED was found to decrease with increasing number of fractions for the targets, with alpha/beta ranging from 10 to 20. This decrease was most pronounced for hypofractionated treatments with fewer than 10 fractions. Additionally, EUBED was found to increase slightly with increasing number of fractions for targets with alpha/beta ranging from 2 to 5.
Nearly identical dose fall-off characteristics were found for the Gamma Knife, Cyberknife, and Novalis systems. Based on EUBED calculations, normal brain sparing was found to favor hypofractionated treatments for fast-growing tumors with alpha/beta ranging from 10 to 20 and single fraction treatment for abnormal tissues with low alpha/beta values such as alpha/beta = 2.
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ABSTRACT: Normal brain tissue doses have been shown to be strongly apparatus dependent for multi-target stereotactic radiosurgery. In this study, we investigated whether inter-target dose interplay effects across contemporary radiosurgical treatment platforms are responsible for such an observation. For the study, subsets ([Formula: see text] and 12) of a total of 12 targets were planned at six institutions. Treatment platforms included the (1) Gamma Knife Perfexion (PFX), (2) CyberKnife, (3) Novalis linear accelerator equipped with a 3.0-mm multi-leaf collimator (MLC), and the (4) Varian Truebeam flattening-filter-free (FFF) linear accelerator also equipped with a 2.5 mm MLC. Identical dose-volume constraints for the targets and critical structures were applied for each apparatus. All treatment plans were developed at individual centers, and the results were centrally analyzed. We found that dose-volume constraints were satisfied by each apparatus with some differences noted in certain structures such as the lens. The peripheral normal brain tissue doses were lowest for the PFX and highest for TrueBeam FFF and CyberKnife treatment plans. Comparing the volumes of normal brain receiving 12 Gy, TrueBeam FFF, Novalis, and CyberKnife were 180-290 % higher than PFX. The mean volume of normal brain-per target receiving 4-Gy increased by approximately 3.0 cc per target for TrueBeam, 2.7 cc per target for CyberKnife, 2.0 cc per target for Novalis, and 0.82 cc per target for PFX. The beam-on time was shortest with the TrueBeam FFF (e.g., 6-9 min at a machine output rate of 1,200 MU/min) and longest for the PFX (e.g., 50-150 mins at a machine output rate of 350 cGy/min). The volumes of normal brain receiving 4 and 12 Gy were higher, and increased more swiftly per target, for Linac-based SRS platforms than for PFX. Treatment times were shortest with TrueBeam FFF.International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery 04/2014; DOI:10.1007/s11548-014-1001-4 · 1.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Purpose To investigate how millimeter-level margins beyond the gross tumor volume (GTV) impact peripheral normal brain tissue sparing for Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Methods and Materials A mathematical formula was derived to predict the peripheral isodose volume, such as the 12-Gy isodose volume, with increasing margins by millimeters. The empirical parameters of the formula were derived from a cohort of brain tumor and surgical tumor resection cavity cases (n=15) treated with the Gamma Knife Perfexion. This was done by first adding margins from 0.5 to 3.0 mm to each individual target and then creating for each expanded target a series of treatment plans of nearly identical quality as the original plan. Finally, the formula was integrated with a published logistic regression model to estimate the treatment-induced complication rate for stereotactic radiosurgery when millimeter-level margins are added. Results Confirmatory correlation between the nominal target radius (ie, RT) and commonly used maximum target size was found for the studied cases, except for a few outliers. The peripheral isodose volume such as the 12-Gy volume was found to increase exponentially with increasing Δ/RT, where Δ is the margin size. Such a curve fitted the data (logarithmic regression, R2 >0.99), and the 12-Gy isodose volume was shown to increase steeply with a 0.5- to 3.0-mm margin applied to a target. For example, a 2-mm margin on average resulted in an increase of 55% ± 16% in the 12-Gy volume; this corresponded to an increase in the symptomatic necrosis rate of 6% to 25%, depending on the Δ/RT values for the target. Conclusions Millimeter-level margins beyond the GTV significantly impact peripheral normal brain sparing and should be applied with caution. Our model provides a rapid estimate of such an effect, particularly for large and/or irregularly shaped targets.International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 05/2014; 89(1):206–213. DOI:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2014.01.011 · 4.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND : The objective of this study was to compare the three most prominent systems for stereotactic radiosurgery in terms of dosimetric characteristics: the Cyberknife system, the Gamma Knife Perfexion and the Novalis system. METHODS: Ten patients treated for recurrent grade I meningioma after surgery using the Cyberknife system were identified; the Cyberknife contours were exported and comparative treatment plans were generated for the Novalis system and Gamma Knife Perfexion. Dosimetric values were compared with respect to coverage, conformity index (CI), gradient index (GI) and beam-on time (BOT). RESULTS: All three systems showed comparable results in terms of coverage. The Gamma Knife and the Cyberknife system showed significantly higher levels of conformity than the Novalis system (Cyberknife vs Novalis, p = 0.002; Gamma Knife vs Novalis, p = 0.002). The Gamma Knife showed significantly steeper gradients compared with the Novalis and the Cyberknife system (Gamma Knife vs Novalis, p = 0.014; Gamma Knife vs Cyberknife, p = 0.002) and significantly longer beam-on times than the other two systems (BOT = 66 ± 21.3 min, Gamma Knife vs Novalis, p = 0.002; Gamma Knife vs Cyberknife, p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: The multiple focal entry systems (Gamma Knife and Cyberknife) achieve higher conformity than the Novalis system. The Gamma Knife delivers the steepest dose gradient of all examined systems. However, the Gamma Knife is known to require long beam-on times, and despite worse dose gradients, LINAC-based systems (Novalis and Cyberknife) offer image verification at the time of treatment delivery.Acta Neurochirurgica 11/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00701-014-2272-9 · 1.79 Impact Factor