Polyfluoroalkyl Chemicals in Pooled Blood Serum from Infants, Children, and Adults in Australia
ABSTRACT Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) have been used worldwide for more than 50 years in a wide variety of industrial and consumer products. Limited data exist on human exposure to PFCs in the Southern Hemisphere. Human blood serum collected in southeast Queensland, Australia, in 2006−2007 from 2420 donors was pooled according to age (cord blood, 0−0.5, 0.6−1, 1.1−1.5, 1.6−2, 2.1−2.5, 2.6−3, 3.1−3.5, 3.6−4, 4.1−6, 6.1−9, 9.1−12, 12.1−15, 16−30, 31−45, 46−60, and >60 years) and gender and was analyzed for eight PFCs. Across all pools, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was detected at the highest mean concentration (15.2 ng/mL) followed by perfluorooctanoate (PFOA, 6.4 ng/mL), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS, 3.1 ng/mL), perfluorononanoate (PFNA, 0.8 ng/mL), 2-(N-methyl-perfluorooctance sulfonamide) acetate (Me-PFOSA-AcOH, 0.66 ng/mL), and perfluorodecanoate (PFDeA, 0.29 ng/mL). Perfluorooctane sulfonamide was detected in only 24% of the pools, and 2-(N-ethylperfluorooctane sulfonamide) acetate was detected in only one. PFOS concentrations were significantly higher in pools from adult males than from adult females (p = 0.002); no gender differences were apparent in the pools from children (<12 years old). The highest mean concentrations of PFOA, PFHxS, PFNA, PFDeA, and Me-PFOSA-AcOH were found in children <15 years, while PFOS was highest in adults >60 years. Investigation into the sources and exposure pathways in Australia, in particular for children, is necessary as well as continued biomonitoring to determine the potential effects on human concentrations as a result of changes in the PFC manufacturing practices, including the cessation of production of several PFCs.
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ABSTRACT: The levels, distribution, possible sources, and inventory of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the eutrophic freshwater Taihu Lake, East China were investigated in this study. Among the target 11 PFAAs, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (2.15-73.9ngL(-1)) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) (<LOQ-22.2ngL(-1)) were the dominant components in surface water, followed by perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) with the maximum concentration of 10.5ngL(-1). PFOS was also dominant (0.13-6.95ngg(-1)dw) in the sediments, accounting for 15-85% of ΣPFAAs concentrations in 70% of the sediment samples. Sediment-water partitioning coefficients showed that logKOC increased linearly with the increasing chain length, with the logKOC values increased by 0.1-0.4logunit with each CF2 moiety from C8 to C12 perfluorinated carboxylic acids. Three specific molecular ratios, PFOS/PFOA, PFOA/PFNA and PFHpA/PFOA were used to characterize the potential sources. It indicated that the majority of pollutants was from direct emissions from manufacturing processes. The PFOA/PFNA ratios between 1.7 and 56.8 in surface water suggested the influence of secondary sources such as the degradation of volatile precursor substances. Given the high ratios of PFHpA/PFOA (0.05-7.93), it also indicated the influence from atmospheric deposition to the epilimnion. The predicted environmental concentrations were calculated from European Union system for the evaluation of substances model (EUSES). As expected, the predicted environmental concentration (PEC) of PFOS in sediment fit well to the monitored level of PFOS in this region, and the inventory of ΣPFCA and PFOS were estimated to be 989kg and 646kg in Taihu Lake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Chemosphere 02/2015; 127C:201-207. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.01.053 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Severe perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) contamination resulting from the fast-growing semiconductor, electrochemical, and optoelectronic industries has been determined in the river water in the vicinity of the Taipei area, Taiwan, during recent years. However, little is known about body burdens of the PFAA contaminations in local residents, especially children living in the Taipei area recently. In this study, ten target PFAA analytes consisted of three perfluorosulfonates (PFSAs) and seven perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) in the blood serum samples, collected from 225 healthy children with an average age of 13.6 years in the Taipei area from 2009 to 2010, were analyzed via high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). As the dominant PFAA contaminant in the blood serum samples from Taiwanese children, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) contributed 86 % of all the target PFAA analytes, while the other nine analytes contributed less than 5 % individually. PFOS showed the highest median up to 29 ng/mL, ranging from 0.03 to 148 ng/mL, which was higher than that observed in the serum samples collected from Taiwanese children between 2006 and 2008. Statistically, serum concentrations of perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) had significantly positive correlations with ages of children (p < 0.05). Furthermore, serum PFBS, PFHxS, and PFOA concentrations in the male children were considerably higher than those in the female children (p = 0.049, p = 0.000, p = 0.000).Environmental Science and Pollution Research 03/2014; 21(12). DOI:10.1007/s11356-014-2594-4 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), which has numerous uses besides being an ingredient in the formulation of aqueous film-forming foams, is considered as an emerging pollutant of increasing public health and environmental concern due to recent reports of its worldwide distribution, environmental persistence and bioaccumulation potential. In an attempt to recommend a ‘risk-based’ remediation strategy, this study investigates the removal of PFOS from impacted waters and fixation of PFOS in impacted soils using a novel modified clay adsorbent (MatCARE™, patent number 2009905953). Batch adsorption tests demonstrated a much faster adsorption kinetics (only 60 min to reach equilibrium) and remarkably higher PFOS adsorption capacity (0.09 mmol g−1) of the MatCARE™ compared to a commercial activated carbon (0.07 mmol g−1). Treatability studies, performed by treating the PFOS-contaminated soils with the MatCARE™ (10 % w/w) and then incubating at 25 and 37 °C temperatures maintaining 60 % of the maximum water holding capacity of the soils for a period of a year, demonstrated a negligible release (water extractable) of the contaminant (only 0.5 to 0.6 %). The fixation of PFOS in soils by the new adsorbent was exothermic in nature. Soils with higher clay and organic matter content, but lower pH values, retained PFOS to a much greater extent. A cost analyses confirmed that the MatCARETM could be an economically viable option for the ‘risk-based’ remediation of PFOS in contaminated waters and soils.Water Air and Soil Pollution 12/2013; 224(12). DOI:10.1007/s11270-013-1714-y · 1.69 Impact Factor