Transcriptional regulation of the rice arginine decarboxylase (Adc1) and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (Samdc) genes by methyl jasmonate.
ABSTRACT We investigated the effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJa) treatment on the expression of two genes in the rice polyamine biosynthesis pathway and on the polyamine content in wild type plants and transgenic rice plants expressing a Datura stramonium (Ds) Adc cDNA, the latter accumulating up to three-fold the normal level of putrescine. Exogenous MeJa transiently inhibited the expression of OsAdc1, OsSamdc and Spermidine synthase (OsSpds) genes in the polyamine biosynthesis pathway, probably through transcriptional repression. There was also a similar negative impact on the DsAdc transgene in transgenic plants, even though a constitutive promoter was used to drive transgene expression. The free putrescine content was reduced significantly in the leaves of both wild type and transgenic plants in response to MeJa, although the magnitude of the effect was greater in wild type plants. We discuss our findings with respect to the previously proposed threshold model of polyamine metabolism in plants subjected to abiotic stress.
Article: Early activation of wheat polyamine biosynthesis during Fusarium head blight implicates putrescine as an inducer of trichothecene mycotoxin production.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum causes Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) disease on wheat which can lead to trichothecene mycotoxin (e.g. deoxynivalenol, DON) contamination of grain, harmful to mammalian health. DON is produced at low levels under standard culture conditions when compared to plant infection but specific polyamines (e.g. putrescine and agmatine) and amino acids (e.g. arginine and ornithine) are potent inducers of DON by F. graminearum in axenic culture. Currently, host factors that promote mycotoxin synthesis during FHB are unknown, but plant derived polyamines could contribute to DON induction in infected heads. However, the temporal and spatial accumulation of polyamines and amino acids in relation to that of DON has not been studied. Following inoculation of susceptible wheat heads by F. graminearum, DON accumulation was detected at two days after inoculation. The accumulation of putrescine was detected as early as one day following inoculation while arginine and cadaverine were also produced at three and four days post-inoculation. Transcripts of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and arginine decarboxylase (ADC), two key biosynthetic enzymes for putrescine biosynthesis, were also strongly induced in heads at two days after inoculation. These results indicated that elicitation of the polyamine biosynthetic pathway is an early response to FHB. Transcripts for genes encoding enzymes acting upstream in the polyamine biosynthetic pathway as well as those of ODC and ADC, and putrescine levels were also induced in the rachis, a flower organ supporting DON production and an important route for pathogen colonisation during FHB. A survey of 24 wheat genotypes with varying responses to FHB showed putrescine induction is a general response to inoculation and no correlation was observed between the accumulation of putrescine and infection or DON accumulation. The activation of the polyamine biosynthetic pathway and putrescine in infected heads prior to detectable DON accumulation is consistent with a model where the pathogen exploits the generic host stress response of polyamine synthesis as a cue for production of trichothecene mycotoxins during FHB disease. However, it is likely that this mechanism is complicated by other factors contributing to resistance and susceptibility in diverse wheat genetic backgrounds.BMC Plant Biology 01/2010; 10:289. · 3.45 Impact Factor