Accuracy of ultrasound in estimation of prostate weight: comparison of urologists and radiologists.
ABSTRACT Measurements of prostate size are obtained to contribute in the diagnosis and follow up of patients with a variety of diseases. Since its introduction, transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) of the prostate has become the most common method for assessment of prostate volumes. Ultrasonography, in general, has been associated with concerns of operator dependent variability. Herein, we analyze the accuracy of urologists and radiologists performing TRUS.
The accuracy of preoperative TRUS prostate volume estimation was evaluated by comparing it to gross specimen prostate weight following robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) performed from August 2004 to March 2008 in Mayo Clinic Arizona. A total of 800 RARPs were evaluated retrospectively with 302 patients having a prostate volume measurement with TRUS at our institution followed by RARP being performed within 30 days. The TRUS measurements were divided into two groups: those TRUS measurements performed by urologists (group 1), and those performed by radiologists (group 2). The accuracy of the two groups were compared using a Pearson correlation analysis.
The estimated weight by TRUS in the total cohort of patients correlated with the pathological specimen weight at 0.802 with a standard error of 0.90. Group 1 performed a total of 114 ultrasounds with a correlation of 0.835 and a standard error of 1.27. Group 2 performed a total of 188 with a correlation of 0.786 and a standard error of 0.88.
Urologists and radiologists are both consistently within 17%-22% of the estimated prostate specimen weight. Urologists appeared to have a slightly higher accuracy in estimation but a higher range of error for the whole group when compared to radiologists. Transrectal ultrasonography is a reliable technique to estimate prostate weight and accuracy to within 20% of the pathological weight. Urologists and radiologists are essentially equally proficient in estimating prostate weight with TRUS. These findings are particularly important with respect to specialty certification and competency/proficiency evaluation, as health care increasingly moves towards outcomes based reimbursement.
- SourceAvailable from: PubMed Central[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Purpose: To investigate the relationship between prostate volume and the increased risk for being diagnosed with prostate cancer (PCa) in men with slowly increasing prostate specific antigen (PSA). Materials and Methods: A cohort of 1035 men who visited our hospital's health promotion center and were checked for serum PSA levels more than two times between January 2001 and November 2011 were included. Among them, 116 patients had a change in PSA levels from less than 4 ng/mL to more than 4 ng/mL and underwent transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy. Median age was 55.9 years and 26 (22.4%) had PCa. We compared the initial PSA level, the last PSA level, age, prostate volume, PSA density (PSAD), PSA velocity, and follow-up period between men with and without PCa. The mean follow- up period was 83.7 months. Results: Significant predictive factors for the detection of prostate cancer identified by univariate analysis were prostate volume, follow-up period and PSAD. In the multivariate analysis, prostate volume (p<0.001, odds ratio: 0.890) was the most significant factor for the detection of prostate cancer. In the receiver operator characteristic curve of prostate volume, area under curve was 0.724. At the cut-off value of 28.8 mL for prostate volume, the sensitivity and specificity were 61.1% and 73.1% respectively. Conclusion: In men with PSA values more than 4 ng/mL during the follow-up period, a small prostate volume was the most important factor in early detection of prostate cancer.Yonsei medical journal 09/2013; 54(5):1202-6. · 0.77 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To compare prostate gland volume (PV) estimation of automated computer-generated multifeature active shape models (MFAs) performed with 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with that of other methods of PV assessment, with pathologic specimens as the reference standard. All subjects provided written informed consent for this HIPAA-compliant and institutional review board-approved study. Freshly weighed prostatectomy specimens from 91 patients (mean age, 59 years; range, 42-84 years) served as the reference standard. PVs were manually calculated by two independent readers from MR images by using the standard ellipsoid formula. Planimetry PV was calculated from gland areas generated by two independent investigators by using manually drawn regions of interest. Computer-automated assessment of PV with an MFA was determined by the aggregate computer-calculated prostate area over the range of axial T2-weighted prostate MR images. Linear regression, linear mixed-effects models, concordance correlation coefficients, and Bland-Altman limits of agreement were used to compare volume estimation methods. MFA-derived PVs had the best correlation with pathologic specimen PVs (slope, 0.888). Planimetry derived volumes produced slopes of 0.864 and 0.804 for two independent readers when compared with specimen PVs. Ellipsoid formula-derived PVs had slopes closest to one when compared with planimetry PVs. Manual MR imaging and MFA PV estimates had high concordance correlation coefficients with pathologic specimens. MFAs with axial T2-weighted MR imaging provided an automated and efficient tool with which to assess PV. Both MFAs and MR imaging planimetry require adjustments for optimized PV accuracy when compared with prostatectomy specimens.Radiology 01/2012; 262(1):144-51. · 6.34 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) is a non-invasive modality widely used in urology on an outpatient basis to measure the volume and anatomical structure of the prostate. However, the prostate volume measured by TRUS often varies from test to test. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical significance of the different shapes of the prostate, as shown by TRUS before and after transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). We evaluated 103 patients who underwent TURP. TRUS was performed preoperatively, and the International Prostatic Symptom Score (IPSS) and quality of life (QoL) were assessed preoperatively and at 6 months postoperatively. Patients were classified into two groups: patients with a bilaterally enlarged transitional zone were assigned to group A, and those with a protruding retrourethral zone were assigned to group B. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in preoperative variables. However, postoperative IPSS scores were lower in group A than group B (9.87+/-6.15 vs. 13.18+/-8.07, p=0.02). With regard to postoperative IPSS scores relative to preoperative IPSS scores, both groups showed a significant decrease, but group A experienced a significantly greater decrease than group B (13.43+/-7.47 vs. 8.67+/-8.33, p=0.005). Patients with a prostate protruding into the bladder have less of a decrease in their IPSS scores after TURP, compared to patients that do not have prostate protrusion, meaning that patients with protrusion experience less symptomatic relief.Korean journal of urology 07/2010; 51(7):483-7.