Peptide Sugar Mimetics Prevent HIV Type 1 Replication in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in the Presence of HIV-Positive Antiserum

Susavion Biosciences, Inc., Tempe, AZ 85281, USA.
AIDS research and human retroviruses (Impact Factor: 2.33). 02/2010; 26(2):149-60. DOI: 10.1089/aid.2009.0155
Source: PubMed


Cells of the immune system express a number of receptors that bind carbohydrate ligands. We questioned whether peptide mimetics of these ligands will activate phagocytic cells and thereby enhance an antiviral response. Short peptide sequences were identified by computational modeling of docking to glycan-specific lectins, selected as receptor analogs, and incorporated into quadravalent structures by peptide synthesis. A peptide with the sequence HPSLK bound to several lectins specific for monosaccharides and to lectins specific for Neu5Ac-Gal-containing complex glycans, whereas a longer sequence, NPSHPLSG, bound only lectins specific for the more complex glycans. In cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) these peptides stimulated phagocytosis of opsonized microspheres. The peptides inhibited replication of HIV-1 in PBMC cultures by 20-80% at concentrations between 1 nM and 1 muM but inhibited replication 100% in the presence of diluted HIV-positive antiserum that alone inhibited replication by 30%. HPSLK caused about 50% loss of viability of cells at 1 mM, a concentration 10(6)-fold higher than an effective inhibitory concentration, but no toxicity was observed with NPSHPLSG. These results demonstrated that peptidomimetics of glycan ligands of cellular receptors are effective in activating phagocytosis, which may be a factor in providing complete inhibition of HIV-1 replication in vitro.

Download full-text


Available from: Laura Eggink,
  • Source
    • "Recent treatments for GBM include manipulations of the activity of tumor-associated macrophages, such as inhibition of their recruitment to and survival in tumor tissue and restoration of their antitumor immunity.12,26–29 In this study, we investigated the effects of the activation of GCLRs in stimulating anti-glioma immunity based on previous work7,8 conducted with these receptors. We sought to determine whether such activation influenced monocytic activity in cancers and other immune-related diseases, and to determine whether there was potential for use of such treatments against a malignant glioma. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Immunotherapy with immunostimulants is an attractive therapy against gliomas. C-type lectin receptors specific for galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine (GCLR) regulate cellular differentiation, recognition, and trafficking of monocyte-derived cells. A peptide mimetic of GCLR ligands (GCLRP) was used to activate blood monocytes and populations of myeloid-derived cells against a murine glioblastoma. The ability of GCLRP to stimulate phagocytosis by human microglia and monocyte-derived cells of the brain (MDCB) isolated from a human glioblastoma was initially assessed in vitro. Induction of activation markers on blood monocytes was assayed by flow cytometry after administration of GCLRP to naive mice. C57BL/6 mice underwent stereotactic intracranial implantation of GL261 glioma cells and were randomized for tumor size by magnetic resonance imaging, which was also used to assess increase in tumor size. Brain tumor tissues were analyzed using flow cytometry, histology, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with respect to tumor, peritumoral area, and contralateral hemisphere regions. GCLRP exhibited strong stimulatory effect on MDCBs and blood monocytes in vitro and in vivo. GCLRP was associated with an increased percentage of precursors of dendritic cells in the blood (P = 0.003), which differentiated into patrolling macrophages in tumoral (P = 0.001) and peritumoral areas (P = 0.04), rather than into dendritic cells, as in control animals. Treatment with GCLRP did not result in a significant change in survival of mice bearing a tumor. In vitro and in vivo activation of monocytes was achieved by administration of GCLR to mice. GCLRP-activated blood monocytes were recruited to the brain and exhibited specific phenotypes corresponding with tumor region (glioma, peritumoral zone, and contralateral glioma-free hemisphere). GCLRP treatment alone was associated with increased glioma mass as the result of the infiltration of phagocytic cells. Regional specificity for MDCB may have significant tumor treatment implications.
    Cancer Management and Research 09/2012; 4(1):309-23. DOI:10.2147/CMAR.S33248
  • Source

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We previously identified several peptide sequences that mimicked the terminal sugars of complex glycans. Using plant lectins as analogs of lectin-type cell-surface receptors, a tetravalent form of a peptide with the sequence NPSHPLSG, designated svH1C, bound with high avidity to lectins specific for glycans with terminal 5-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac)-galactose (Gal)/N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) sequences. In this report, we show by circular dichroism and NMR spectra that svH1C lacks an ordered structure and thus interacts with binding sites from a flexible conformation. The peptide binds with high avidity to several recombinant human siglec receptors that bind preferentially to Neu5Ac(α2,3)Gal, Neu5Ac(α2,6)GalNAc or Neu5Ac(α2,8)Neu5Ac ligands. In addition, the peptide bound the receptor NKG2D, which contains a lectin-like domain that binds Neu5Ac(α2,3)Gal. The peptide bound to these receptors with a KD in the range of 0.6 to 1 μM. Binding to these receptors was inhibited by the glycoprotein fetuin, which contains multiple glycans that terminate in Neu5Ac(α2,3)Gal or Neu5Ac(α2,6)Gal, and by sialyllactose. Binding of svH1C was not detected with CLEC9a, CLEC10a or DC-SIGN, which are lectin-type receptors specific for other sugars. Incubation of neuraminidase-treated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with svH1C resulted in binding of the peptide to a subset of the CD14+ monocyte population. Tyrosine phosphorylation of siglecs decreased dramatically when peripheral blood mononuclear cells were treated with 100 nM svH1C. Subcutaneous, alternate-day injections of svH1C into mice induced several-fold increases in populations of several types of immune cells in the peritoneal cavity. These results support the conclusion that svH1C mimics Neu5Ac-containing sequences and interacts with cell-surface receptors with avidities sufficient to induce biological responses at low concentrations. The attenuation of inhibitory receptors suggests that svH1C has characteristics of a checkpoint inhibitor.
    PLoS ONE 06/2015; 10(6):e0130532. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0130532 · 3.23 Impact Factor