Chitosan-coated octadecyl-functionalized magnetite nanoparticles: preparation and application in extraction of trace pollutants from environmental water samples.
ABSTRACT In the present study, chitosan-coated octadecyl-functionalized magnetite nanoparticles (Fe(3)O(4)-C(18)-chitosan MNPs) are synthesized and used as an adsorbent to extract trace analytes from environmental water samples. The magnetic nanoparticles, 20 nm in diameter, are of uniform size and have a high magnetic saturation value of 52 emu g(-1), which endue the adsorbent with a large surface area and convenience of isolation. The anionic pollutants, perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), are trapped by the octadecyl group of the interior hydrophobic layer. The positively charged chitosan polymer coating also contributes to PFC enrichment. At the same time, the coating improves the dispersibility of MNPs in aqueous solution and enhances the anti-interference ability of the adsorbent to natural organic macromolecules in complex samples by size exclusion or electrostatic repulsion. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry system is employed in the determination of PFCs after preconcentration with the MNP adsorbent. The predominant factors affecting preconcentration are investigated and optimized. Under the selected conditions, concentration factors of 1000 are achieved by extracting the analytes from 500 mL of several environmental water samples and concentrating the eluants to 0.5 mL with a nitrogen flow. The method detection limits obtained for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA), and perfluorotetradecanoic acid (PFTA) in Gaobeidian wastewater are 0.24, 0.093, 0.24, 0.14, 0.075, 0.24, and 0.17 ng L(-1), respectively. Recoveries of PFOA, PFOS, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFDoDA, and PFTA are in the ranges of 88-108%, 63-112%, 79-109%, 56-107%, 66-106%, 56-106%, and 66-103% for four spiked water samples with low relative standard deviation (2-8%), which indicates good method precision. The advantages of this novel adsorbent are high extraction efficiency, anti-interference, and convenient operation.