Very important pharmacogene summary: thiopurine S-methyltransferase.

Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics (Impact Factor: 3.45). 02/2010; 20(6):401-5. DOI: 10.1097/FPC.0b013e3283352860
Source: PubMed
1 Follower
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pharmacogenetics (PGx) is the study of the relationship between inter-individual genetic variation and drug responses. Germline variants of genes involved in drug metabolism, drug transport, and drug targets can affect individual response to medications. Cancer therapies are characterized by an intrinsically high toxicity; therefore, the application of pharmacogenetics to cancer patients is a particularly promising method for avoiding the use of inefficacious drugs and preventing the associated adverse effects. However, despite continuing efforts in this field, very few labels include information about germline genetic variants associated with drug responses. DPYD, TPMT, UGT1A1, G6PD, CYP2D6, and HLA are the sole loci for which the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) report specific information. This review highlights the germline PGx variants that have been approved to date for anticancer treatments, and also provides some insights about other germline variants with potential clinical applications. The continuous and rapid evolution of next-generation sequencing applications, together with the development of computational methods, should help to refine the implementation of personalized medicine. One day, clinicians may be able to prescribe the best treatment and the correct drug dosage based on each patient’s genotype. This approach would improve treatment efficacy, reduce toxicity, and predict non-responders, thereby decreasing chemotherapy-associated morbidity and improving health benefits.
    Cellular Oncology 01/2015; 38(1). DOI:10.1007/s13402-014-0214-4 · 2.12 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Clinical genetic testing began over 30 years ago with the availability of mutation detection for sickle cell disease diagnosis. Since then, the field has dramatically transformed to include gene sequencing, high-throughput targeted genotyping, prenatal mutation detection, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, population-based carrier screening, and now genome-wide analyses using microarrays and next-generation sequencing. Despite these significant advances in molecular technologies and testing capabilities, clinical genetics laboratories historically have been centered on mutation detection for Mendelian disorders. However, the ongoing identification of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence variants associated with common diseases prompted the availability of testing for personal disease risk estimation, and created commercial opportunities for direct-to-consumer genetic testing companies that assay these variants. This germline genetic risk, in conjunction with other clinical, family, and demographic variables, are the key components of the personalized medicine paradigm, which aims to apply personal genomic and other relevant data into a patient's clinical assessment to more precisely guide medical management. However, genetic testing for disease risk estimation is an ongoing topic of debate, largely due to inconsistencies in the results, concerns over clinical validity and utility, and the variable mode of delivery when returning genetic results to patients in the absence of traditional counseling. A related class of genetic testing with analogous issues of clinical utility and acceptance is pharmacogenetic testing, which interrogates sequence variants implicated in interindividual drug response variability. Although clinical pharmacogenetic testing has not previously been widely adopted, advances in rapid turnaround time genetic testing technology and the recent implementation of preemptive genotyping programs at selected medical centers suggest that personalized medicine through pharmacogenetics is now a reality. This review aims to summarize the current state of implementing genetic testing for personalized medicine, with an emphasis on clinical pharmacogenetic testing.
    Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine 08/2014; 7:227-40. DOI:10.2147/PGPM.S48887
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Thiopurines are extensively used immunosuppressants for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The polymorphism of thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) influences thiopurine metabolism and therapy outcome. We used a TPMT knockdown (kd) model of human Jurkat T-lymphocytes cells to study the effects of treatment with 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) and 6-thioguanine (6-TG) on proteome and phosphoproteome. We identified thirteen proteins with altered expression and nine proteins with altered phosphorylation signals. Three proteins (THIO, TXD17, and GSTM3) with putative functions in cellular oxidative stress responses were altered by 6-TG treatment and another protein PRDX3 was differentially phosphorylated in TPMT kd cells. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay results were consistent with a significant induction of oxidative stress by both TPMT knockdown and thiopurine treatments. Immunoblot analyses showed treatment altered expression of key antioxidant enzymes (i.e., SOD2 and catalase) in both wt and kd groups, while SOD1 was downregulated by 6-TG treatment and TPMT knockdown. Collectively, increased oxidative stress might be a mechanism involved in thiopurine induced cytotoxicity and adverse effects (i.e., hepatotoxicity) and an antioxidant cotherapy might help to combat this. Results highlight the significance of oxidative stress in thiopurines' actions and could have important implications for the treatment of IBD patients.
    Mediators of Inflammation 01/2015; 2015:434825. DOI:10.1155/2015/434825 · 2.42 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 23, 2014