Impact of anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells with transient overexpression of heme oxygenase-1 on myocardial ischemia.
ABSTRACT Although mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have therapeutic potential for tissue injury, intolerance and poor cell viability limit their reparative capability. Therefore, we examined the impact of bone marrow-derived MSCs, in which heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was transiently overexpressed, on the repair of an ischemic myocardial injury. When MSCs and HO-1-overexpressed MSCs (MSC(HO-1)) were exposed to serum deprivation/hypoxia or H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress, MSC(HO-1) exhibited increased resistance to cell apoptosis compared with MSCs (17 +/- 1 vs. 30 +/- 2%, P < 0.05) and were markedly resistant to cell death (2 +/- 1 vs. 32 +/- 2%, P < 0.05). Under these conditions, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production was 2.1-fold greater in MSC(HO-1) than in MSCs. Pretreatment of MSCs and MSC(HO-1) with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway inhibitors such as LY-294002 (50 muM) or wortmannin (100 nM) significantly decreased VEGF production. In a rat infarction model with MSCs or MSC(HO-1) (5 x 10(6) +/- 0.1 x 10(6) cells/rat) transplantation, the number of TdT-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling-positive cells was significantly lower in the MSC(HO-1) group than in the MSC group (12.1 +/- 1.0 cells/field vs. 26.5 +/- 2.6, P < 0.05) on the 4th day after cell transplantation. On the 28th day, increased capillary density associated with decreased infarction size was observed in the MSC(HO-1) group (1,415 +/- 47/mm(2) with 21.6 +/- 2.3%) compared with those in the MSCs group (1,215 +/- 43/mm(2) with 28.2 +/- 2.3%, P < 0.05), although infarction size relative to area at risk was not different in each group at 24 h after transplantation. These results demonstrate that MSC(HO-1) exhibit markedly enhanced anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative capabilities compared with MSCs, thus contributing to improved repair of ischemic myocardial injury through cell survival and VEGF production associated with the PI 3-kinase/Akt pathway.
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to validate a pathway-specific reporter gene that could be used to noninvasively image the oxidative status of progenitor cells. BACKGROUND: In cell therapy studies, reporter gene imaging plays a valuable role in the assessment of cell fate in living subjects. After myocardial injury, noxious stimuli in the host tissue confer oxidative stress to transplanted cells that may influence their survival and reparative function. METHODS: Rat mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) were studied for phenotypic evidence of increased oxidative stress under in vitro stress. On the basis of their up-regulation of the pro-oxidant enzyme p67(phox) subunit of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD[P]H oxidase p67(phox)), an oxidative stress sensor was constructed, comprising the firefly luciferase (Fluc) reporter gene driven by the NAD(P)H p67(phox) promoter. MSCs cotransfected with NAD(P)H p67(phox)-Fluc and a cell viability reporter gene (cytomegalovirus-Renilla luciferase) were studied under in vitro and in vivo pro-oxidant conditions. RESULTS: After in vitro validation of the sensor during low-serum culture, transfected MSCs were transplanted into a rat model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (IR) and monitored by using bioluminescence imaging. Compared with sham controls (no IR), cardiac Fluc intensity was significantly higher in IR rats (3.5-fold at 6 h, 2.6-fold at 24 h, 5.4-fold at 48 h; p < 0.01), indicating increased cellular oxidative stress. This finding was corroborated by ex vivo luminometry after correcting for Renilla luciferase activity as a measure of viable MSC number (Fluc:Renilla luciferase ratio 0.011 ± 0.003 for sham vs. 0.026 ± 0.004 for IR at 48 h; p < 0.05). Furthermore, in IR animals that received MSCs preconditioned with an antioxidant agent (tempol), Fluc signal was strongly attenuated, substantiating the specificity of the oxidative stress sensor. CONCLUSIONS: Pathway-specific reporter gene imaging allows assessment of changes in the oxidative status of MSCs after delivery to ischemic myocardium, providing a template to monitor key biological interactions between transplanted cells and their host environment in living subjects.JACC. Cardiovascular imaging 04/2013; · 14.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Systemic administration of MSCs resulted in remarkable functional improvements in injured tissues without either long-term engraftment or differentiation in many clinical and experimental situations. Emerging evidence suggest that most of the beneficial effects of MSCs could be explained by secretion of soluble factors that have multiple effects including modulation of inflammatory and immune reactions, protection from cell death, and stimulation of endogenous progenitor cells. In this review, we focus on the therapeutic factors that account for the beneficial effects of MSCs in animal models of human diseases.Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 07/2011; 112(11):3073-8. · 3.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the modification of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) with the fused FGF4 (fibroblast growth factor 4)-bFGF (basic fibroblast growth factor) gene could improve the expression and secretion of BFGF, and increase the efficacies in repairing infarcted myocardium. We used in-Fusion technique to construct recombinant lentiviral vectors containing the individual gene of bFGF, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), or genes of FGF4-bFGF and EGFP, and then transfected these lentiviruses into rat BMSCs. We conducted an in vitro experiment to compare the secretion of bFGF in BMSCs infected by these lentiviruses and also examined their therapeutic effects in the treatment of myocardial infraction in a rodent study. Sixty rats were tested in the following five conditions: Group-SHAM received only sham operation as controls; Group-AMI received only injection of placebo PBS buffer; Group-BMSC, Group-bFGF and Group-FGF4-bFGF received implantation of BMSCs with empty lentivirus, bFGF lentivirus, and FGF4-bFGF lentivirus, respectively. Our results found out that the transplanted FGF4-bFGF BMSCs had the highest survival rate, and also the highest myocardial expression of bFGF and microvascular density as evidenced by western blotting and immunohistochemistry, respectively. As compared to other groups, the Group-FGF4-BFGF rats had the lowest myocardial fibrotic fraction, and the highest left ventricular ejection fraction. These results suggest that the modification of BMSCs with the FGF4-bFGF fused gene can not only increase the expression of bFGF but also improve its secretion. The FGF4-bFGF BMSCs thus can enhance the survival of the transplanted cells, diminish myocardial fibrosis, promote myocardial angiogenesis, and improve cardiac functions.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 04/2014; · 2.28 Impact Factor