Impact of anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells with transient overexpression of heme oxygenase-1 on myocardial ischemia
ABSTRACT Although mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have therapeutic potential for tissue injury, intolerance and poor cell viability limit their reparative capability. Therefore, we examined the impact of bone marrow-derived MSCs, in which heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was transiently overexpressed, on the repair of an ischemic myocardial injury. When MSCs and HO-1-overexpressed MSCs (MSC(HO-1)) were exposed to serum deprivation/hypoxia or H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress, MSC(HO-1) exhibited increased resistance to cell apoptosis compared with MSCs (17 +/- 1 vs. 30 +/- 2%, P < 0.05) and were markedly resistant to cell death (2 +/- 1 vs. 32 +/- 2%, P < 0.05). Under these conditions, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production was 2.1-fold greater in MSC(HO-1) than in MSCs. Pretreatment of MSCs and MSC(HO-1) with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway inhibitors such as LY-294002 (50 muM) or wortmannin (100 nM) significantly decreased VEGF production. In a rat infarction model with MSCs or MSC(HO-1) (5 x 10(6) +/- 0.1 x 10(6) cells/rat) transplantation, the number of TdT-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling-positive cells was significantly lower in the MSC(HO-1) group than in the MSC group (12.1 +/- 1.0 cells/field vs. 26.5 +/- 2.6, P < 0.05) on the 4th day after cell transplantation. On the 28th day, increased capillary density associated with decreased infarction size was observed in the MSC(HO-1) group (1,415 +/- 47/mm(2) with 21.6 +/- 2.3%) compared with those in the MSCs group (1,215 +/- 43/mm(2) with 28.2 +/- 2.3%, P < 0.05), although infarction size relative to area at risk was not different in each group at 24 h after transplantation. These results demonstrate that MSC(HO-1) exhibit markedly enhanced anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative capabilities compared with MSCs, thus contributing to improved repair of ischemic myocardial injury through cell survival and VEGF production associated with the PI 3-kinase/Akt pathway.
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ABSTRACT: Conditioned medium from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-CM) may represent a promising alternative to MSCs transplantation, however, the low concentrations of growth factors in non-activated MSC-CM hamper its clinical application. Recent data indicated that the paracrine potential of MSCs could be enhanced by inflammatory factors. Herein, we pre-activated bone-marrow-derived MSCs under radiation-induced inflammatory condition (MSC(IEC-6(IR))) and investigated the evidence and mechanism for the differential effects of MSC-CM(IEC-6(IR)) and non-activated MSC-CM on radiation-induced intestinal injury (RIII). Systemic infusion of MSC-CM(IEC-6(IR)), but not non-activated MSC-CM, dramatically improved intestinal damage and survival of irradiated rats. Such benefits may involve the modulation of epithelial regeneration and inflammation, as indicated by the regeneration of intestinal epithelial/stem cells, the regulation of the pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine balance. The mechanism for the superior paracrine efficacy of MSC(IEC-6(IR)) is related to a higher secretion of regenerative, immunomodulatory and trafficking molecules, including the pivotal factor IGF-1, induced by TNF-α, IL-1β and nitric oxide partially via a heme oxygenase-1 dependent mechanism. Together, our findings suggest that pre-activation of MSCs with TNF-α, IL-1β and nitric oxide enhances its paracine effects on RIII via a heme oxygenase-1 dependent mechanism, which may help us to maximize the paracrine potential of MSCs.
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ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) administration is a promising adjuvant therapy to treat tissue injury. However, MSC survival after administration is often hampered by oxidative stress at the site of injury. Heme oxygenase (HO) generates the cytoprotective effector molecules biliverdin/bilirubin, carbon monoxide (CO) and iron/ferritin by breaking down heme. Since HO-activity mediates anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative effects, we hypothesized that modulation of the HO-system affects MSC survival. Adipose-derived MSCs (ASCs) from wild type (WT) and HO-2 knockout (KO) mice were isolated and characterized with respect to ASC marker expression. In order to analyze potential modulatory effects of the HO-system on ASC survival, WT and HO-2 KO ASCs were pre-treated with HO-activity modulators, or downstream effector molecules biliverdin, bilirubin, and CO before co-exposure of ASCs to a toxic dose of H2O2. Surprisingly, sensitivity to H2O2-mediated cell death was similar in WT and HO-2 KO ASCs. However, pre-induction of HO-1 expression using curcumin increased ASC survival after H2O2 exposure in both WT and HO-2 KO ASCs. Simultaneous inhibition of HO-activity resulted in loss of curcumin-mediated protection. Co-treatment with glutathione precursor N-Acetylcysteine promoted ASC survival. However, co-incubation with HO-effector molecules bilirubin and biliverdin did not rescue from H2O2-mediated cell death, whereas co-exposure to CO-releasing molecules-2 (CORM-2) significantly increased cell survival, independently from HO-2 expression. Summarizing, our results show that curcumin protects via an HO-1 dependent mechanism against H2O2-mediated apoptosis, and likely through the generation of CO. HO-1 pre-induction or administration of CORMs may thus form an attractive strategy to improve MSC therapy.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 10/2014; 15(10):17974-17999. DOI:10.3390/ijms151017974 · 2.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Activation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a heme-degrading enzyme responsive to a wide range of cellular stress, is traditionally considered to convey adap-tive responses to oxidative stress, inflammation and vaso-constriction. These diversified effects are achieved through the degradation of heme to carbon monoxide (CO), bili-verdin (which is rapidly converted to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase) and ferric iron. Recent findings have added antiproliferative and angiogenic effects to the list of HO-1/ CO actions. HO-1 along with its reaction products bilirubin and CO are protective against ischemia-induced injury (myocardial infarction, ischemia—reperfusion (IR)-injury and post-infarct structural remodelling). Moreover, HO-1, and CO in particular, possess acute antihypertensive effects. As opposed to these curative potentials, the long-believed protective effect of HO-1 in cardiac remodelling in response to pressure overload and type 2 diabetes mel-litus (DM) has been questioned by recent work. These challenges, coupled with emerging regulatory mechanisms, motivate further in-depth studies to help understand untapped layers of HO-1 regulation and action. The outcomes of these efforts may shed new light on critical mechanisms that could be used to harness the protective potential of this enzyme for the therapeutic benefit of patients suffering from such highly prevalent cardiovas-cular disorders. Keywords HO-1 Á Nrf2 Á Cardiac ischemia Á Ischemia–reperfusion injury Á Diabetic/diet-induced cardiomyopathy Á Myocardial hypertrophy