Characterization of lentiviral pseudotypes with influenza H5N1 hemagglutinin and their performance in neutralization assays.
ABSTRACT Pseudotype reporter viruses are being used as safe, quantitative, and high-throughput tools for assessing antibody neutralization for many viruses, including influenza. However, characterization of pseudotypes containing influenza hemagglutinin (HA-pseudotypes) is needed before this system is widely adopted for evaluating neutralizing antibodies in sera following vaccination or infection. In this report HA-pseudotype stocks were analyzed for HA content, stability, and performance in neutralization assays under various conditions. HA-pseudotypes produced with HA genes of H5 strains representing clades 1, 2.2, and 2.3.4 consistently contain similar HA contents, and infectivity was not greatly affected by the purity of the HA-pseudotype preparations or variations in storage conditions. HA-pseudotype neutralization titers using a reference serum panel were also consistent across a wide range of dilutions of HA-pseudotype stocks and correlated well with results from microneutralization assays involving replicating influenza. Concentrated HA-pseudotypes were further shown to work well in hemagglutination inhibition assays. Finally, antisera elicited by genetically modified HA, with changes in the polybasic cleavage site that have been used in some H5 vaccines and reduce pathogenicity, gave identical neutralization titers against HA-pseudotypes with wild type or modified HA. These findings support continued development of HA-pseudotypes as a robust tool for analyzing sera in vaccine and serologic studies.
SourceAvailable from: Michael J Wannemuehler[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: H5N1 avian influenza is a significant global concern with the potential to become the next pandemic threat. Recombinant subunit vaccines are an attractive alternative for pandemic vaccines compared to traditional vaccine technologies. In particular, polyanhydride nanoparticles encapsulating subunit proteins have been shown to enhance humoral and cell-mediated immunity and provide protection upon lethal challenge. In this work, a recombinant H5 hemagglutinin trimer (H53) was produced and encapsulated into polyanhydride nanoparticles. The studies performed indicated that the recombinant H53 antigen was a robust immunogen. Immunizing mice with H53 encapsulated into polyanhydride nanoparticles induced high neutralizing antibody titers and enhanced CD4(+) T cell recall responses in mice. Finally, the H53-based polyanhydride nanovaccine induced protective immunity against a low-pathogenic H5N1 viral challenge. Informatics analyses indicated that mice receiving the nanovaccine formulations and subsequently challenged with virus were similar to naïve mice that were not challenged. The current studies provide a basis to further exploit the advantages of polyanhydride nanovaccines in pandemic scenarios.International Journal of Nanomedicine 01/2015; 10:229-43. DOI:10.2147/IJN.S72264 · 4.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Identifying major antigenic and protective epitopes of the H7 hemagglutinin (HA) will be important for understanding the antibody response to vaccines developed against the novel influenza H7N9 viruses that emerged in China in 2013. To facilitate antigenic characterization of the H7N9 HA and to develop reagents for evaluation of H7N9 candidate vaccines, we generated a panel of murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to the HA of A/Shanghai/2/2013 using mammalian cell-derived virus-like particles (VLP) containing the H7 HA. Neutralizing antibodies identified an HA epitope corresponding to antigenic site A on the structurally similar influenza H3 hemagglutinin. Importantly, the neutralizing antibodies protect against A/Shanghai/2/2013 challenge. This antigenic site is conserved among many H7 viruses, including strains of both Eurasian and North American lineage, and the isolated neutralizing antibodies are cross-reactive with older H7 vaccine strains. The results indicate that the identified antigenic site is a potentially important protective epitope and suggest the potential benefit of cross-reactive antibody responses to vaccination with H7 candidate vaccines.PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(1):e0117108. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0117108 · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The use of vaccination against the influenza virus remains the most effective method of mitigating the significant morbidity and mortality caused by this virus. Antibodies elicited by currently licensed influenza vaccines are predominantly hemagglutination-inhibition (HI)-competent antibodies that target the globular head of HA thus inhibiting influenza virus entry into target cells. These antibodies predominantly confer homosubtypic/strain specific protection and only rarely confer heterosubtypic protection. However, recent academia or pharma-led R&D towards the production of a "universal vaccine" has centered on the elicitation of antibodies directed against the stalk of the influenza HA that has been shown to confer broad protection across a range of different subtypes (H1 to H16). The accurate and sensitive measurement of antibody responses elicited by these "next-generation" influenza vaccines is however hampered by the lack of sensitivity of the traditional influenza serological assays hemagglutinin inhibition (HI), single radial hemolysis (SRH) and microneutralization (MN). Assays utilizing pseudotypes, chimeric viruses bearing influenza glycoproteins, have been shown to be highly efficient for the measurement of homosubtypic and heterosubtypic broadly-neutralizing antibodies, making them ideal serological tools for the study of cross-protective responses against multiple influenza subtypes with pandemic potential. In this review, we will analyze and compare literature involving the production of influenza pseudotypes with particular emphasis on their use in serum antibody neutralization assays. This will enable us to establish the parameters required for optimization and propose a consensus protocol to be employed for the further deployment of these assays in influenza vaccine immunogenicity studies.Frontiers in Immunology 03/2015; 6(161). DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2015.00161