Working memory fMRI activation in cocaine-dependent subjects: Association with treatment response

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 1300 Moursund, Houston, TX 77030, United States.
Psychiatry Research (Impact Factor: 2.47). 02/2010; 181(3):174-82. DOI: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2009.11.003
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of early abstinence cocaine users offer information about the state of the brain when most cocaine users seek treatment. This study examined the relationship between pretreatment brain function and subsequent treatment response in 19 treatment-seeking early abstinence cocaine-dependent (CD) subjects. These subjects and 14 non-drug-using control subjects underwent fMRI while performing a working memory task with three levels of difficulty. CD subjects were then randomized to treatment studies. Results showed CD subjects had significantly lower (random effects, corrected for multiple comparisons) brain activation in caudate, putamen, cingulate gyrus, middle and superior frontal gyri, inferior frontal gyrus pars triangularis and pars opercularis, precentral gyrus, and thalamus compared with non-drug-using controls. Within CD subjects, thalamic activation significantly correlated with treatment response. This study shows CD subjects in early abstinence have alterations of brain function in frontal, striatal, and thalamic brain regions known to be part of a circuit associated with motor control, reward, and cognition. Subjects with pretreatment thalamic deactivation showed the poorest treatment response, possibly related to thalamic involvement in mesocortical and mesolimbic dopamine projections.

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Available from: Nuvan Rathnayaka, Sep 29, 2015
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    • "The age range in the present study is consistent with the average age of cocaine-dependent subjects who were seeking treatment in Houston (see Schmitz et al., 2012 for example ). The age range in the present study is also consistent with our other research (e.g., Moeller et al., 2010), and previous studies (e.g., Xu et al., 2010) published by other groups. "
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    ABSTRACT: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a useful technique for non-invasively investigating the microstructural organization of white matter (WM), and the most consistent DTI finding regarding cocaine-related WM alterations is in the corpus callosum (CC). WM injury has also been observed in subjects with traumatic brain injury (TBI), including in the CC. We used DTI to test if the WM microstructure is relatively more impaired in cocaine-dependent subjects who had suffered a mild TBI (mTBI). Fractional anisotropy (FA), which reflects the degree of alignment of cellular structures within fiber tracts and their structural integrity, was compared across cocaine-dependent subjects with mTBI (COCTBI group, n=9), matched cocaine-dependent subjects without TBI (COC group, n=12), and matched healthy controls (CTL group, n=12). The COCTBI group had significantly lower FA in the genu, body, and splenium of CC, than the CTL group whenever the education was controlled or not. The COC group had significantly lower FA in the left and right anterior corona radiata than the CTL group only when the education was controlled. There was no significant difference in FA between the COC and COCTBI groups. Cocaine dependence (or mTBI) related WM impairments in the CC were not detectable in this small subject sample. The significant finding in the CC suggests that the concurrence of cocaine dependence and mTBI might result in more severe damage to the CC, which could even be detected in small sample size. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Drug and alcohol dependence 03/2015; 151. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.03.015 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    • "In addition to reductions in ACC activation, current and former female cocaine users in our study showed reduced activation in left dorsomedial PFC (BA9), right dorsolateral PFC (BA9), and right anterior PFC (BA10) during recognition . This is consistent with cocaine-dependent individuals demonstrating reduced PFC activation during working memory tasks (Moeller et al. 2010). However, our pattern of findings might be particular to females, given previous evidence for sex differences (Wetherington 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Crack cocaine use is associated with impaired verbal memory in HIV-infected women more than uninfected women. To understand the neural basis for this impairment, this study examined the effects of crack cocaine use on activation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and strategic encoding during a verbal memory task in HIV-infected women. Three groups of HIV-infected women from the Chicago Consortium of the Women's Interagency HIV Study were compared: current users of crack cocaine (n = 10), former users of cocaine (n = 11), and women who had never used cocaine (n = 9). Participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during a verbal memory task and completed a neuropsychological test of verbal memory. On the neuropsychological test, current crack users performed significantly worse than other groups on semantic clustering, a measure of strategic encoding, p < 0.05. During encoding, activation in left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) was lower in current and former cocaine users compared to never users. During recognition, activation in bilateral PFC, specifically left dorsal medial PFC and bilateral dorsolateral PFC, was lower in current and former users compared to women who had never used cocaine. Lower activation in left dorsolateral PFC was correlated with worse performance on the recognition task, p < 0.05. The verbal learning and memory deficits associated with cocaine use in women with HIV may be partially accounted for by alterations in ACC and PFC function.
    Journal of NeuroVirology 04/2014; 20(4). DOI:10.1007/s13365-014-0250-x · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    • "Earlier we demonstrated a cerebellar thalamic cortical circuit for error-related cognitive control (Hendrick et al., 2010; Ide and Li, 2011). Thalamic dysfunction has been implicated in stimulant misuse (Gu et al., 2010; Li et al., 2010; Moeller et al., 2010; Tomasi et al., 2007; Volkow et al., 2011). Thalamus showed diminished responses during a working memory task (Tomasi et al., 2007) and functional connectivity of a large circuit of cortical thalamic subcortical regions was altered in chronic cocaine users (Gu et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance imaging has provided a wealth of information on altered brain activations and structures in individuals addicted to cocaine. However, few studies have considered the influence of age and alcohol use on these changes. We examined gray matter volume with voxel based morphometry (VBM) and low frequency fluctuation (LFF) of BOLD signals as a measure of cerebral activity of 84 cocaine dependent (CD) and 86 healthy control (HC) subjects. We performed a covariance analysis to account for the effects of age and years of alcohol use. Compared to HC, CD individuals showed decreased gray matter (GM) volumes in frontal and temporal cortices, middle/posterior cingulate cortex, and the cerebellum, at p<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons. The GM volume of the bilateral superior frontal gyri (SFG) and cingulate cortices were negatively correlated with years of cocaine use, with women showing a steeper loss in the right SFG in association with duration of use. In contrast, the right ventral putamen showed increased GM volume in CD as compared to HC individuals. Compared to HC, CD individuals showed increased fractional amplitude of LFF (fALFF) in the thalamus, with no significant overlap with regions showing GM volume loss. These results suggested that chronic cocaine use is associated with distinct changes in cerebral structure and activity that can be captured by GM volume and fALFF of BOLD signals.
    Drug and alcohol dependence 09/2013; 134(134). DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.09.004 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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