Comparative effects of lantadene A and its reduced metabolite on mitochondrial bioenergetics
ABSTRACT Lantana (Lantana camara Linn.) is a noxious weed to which certain medicinal properties have been attributed, but its ingestion has been reported to be highly toxic to animals and humans, especially in the liver. The main hepatotoxin in lantana leaves is believed to be the pentacyclic triterpenoid lantadene A (LA), but the precise mechanism by which it induces hepatotoxicity has not yet been established. This work addressed the action of LA and its reduced derivative (RLA) on mitochondrial bioenergetics. At the concentration range tested (5-25 microM), RLA stimulated state-4 respiration, inhibited state-3 respiration, circumvented oligomycin-inhibited state-3 respiration, dissipated membrane potential and depleted ATP in a concentration-dependent manner. However, LA did not stimulate state-4 respiration, nor did it affect the other mitochondrial parameters to the extent of its reduced derivative. The lantadenes didn't inhibit the CCCP-uncoupled respiration but increased the ATPase activity of intact coupled mitochondria. The ATPase activity of intact uncoupled or disrupted mitochondria was not affected by the compounds. We propose, therefore, that RLA acts as a mitochondrial uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation, a property that arises from the biotransformation (reduction) of LA, and LA acts in other mitochondrial membrane components rather than the ATP synthase affecting the mitochondrial bioenergetics. Such effects may account for the well-documented hepatoxicity of lantana.
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ABSTRACT: Liver plays a key role in the metabolism and excretion of xenobiotics which makes it highly susceptible to their adverse and toxic effects. Drugs of synthetic origin are found to be major reason of liver toxicity but some herbs also contributes in same fashion. Various herbal medicines with a history of efficacy are effectively used by humans. However, owing to the presence of different phytoconstituents, which are found to be hepatotoxic, it is needed to focus on such phytochemicals. This review emphasizes some crucial aspects of phytoconstituents that produces hepatotoxicity and possible mechanism responsible for it.
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ABSTRACT: Prosopis juliflora, popularly known as Algaroba, is a major problem because the lack of food during the driest times of the year and its high palatability and nutritional value make its fruits (pods) much appreciated by cattle, goats, sheep and other animals. However, the consumption of this plant for long periods can cause a disease called cara-torta (pie face), which is characterized by cranial nerve dysfunction, mainly due to the degeneration and disappearance of neurons in the trigeminal motor nucleus. Algaroba contains piperidine alkaloids that have been suggested as being responsible for its toxicity; one of these alkaloids is juliprosopine. This study was conducted to evaluate the mechanisms of action of juliprosopine in isolated rat brain mitochondria to evaluate the potential mechanisms that lead to neurotoxicity in animals intoxicated by algaroba. Juliprosopine stimulated state-4 respiration at concentrations of 10-25 μM, affected the membrane potential at all concentrations studied (5-25 μM) and affected ATP production only at higher concentrations (15 and 25 μM). Juliprosopine cannot be classified as a member of the protonophoric class of uncouplers, such as 2,4-dinitrophenol or CCCP (m-chlorophenylhydrazone), due to its inability to promote mitochondrial swelling in the hyposmotic medium of potassium acetate. In addition, carboxyatractyloside, Mg(2+), cyclosporine A and dithiothreitol did not protect the uncoupling induced by juliprosopine. Because juliprosopine increased the fluorescence responses of mitochondria labeled with 1-aniline-8-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS) and DPH (1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene), we suggested that its uncoupling action must be attributed to a modification of the arrangement of the inner mitochondrial membrane.Toxicon 09/2012; 60(8):1355-1362. DOI:10.1016/j.toxicon.2012.09.012 · 2.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abamectin (ABA) is a macrocyclic lactone of the avermectin family used worldwide as an antiparasitic agent in farm animals and pets and as the active ingredient of insecticides and nematicides. In this study, the effects of abamectin on the bioenergetics of mitochondria isolated from rat liver were evaluated. Mitochondria are responsible for converting the energy released by electron transport and stored as the binding energy molecule ATP. Xenobiotics that interfere with its synthesis or utilization can be acutely or chronically toxic. Abamectin (5-25μM) caused concentration-dependent inhibition of the respiratory chain without affecting the membrane potential or the activity of enzymes NADH dehydrogenase or succinate dehydrogenase. This behavior is similar to oligomycin and carboxyatractyloside and suggests direct action on F(o)F(1)-ATPase and/or the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT). ABA more pronouncedly inhibited ATPase phosphohydrolase activity in intact, uncoupled mitochondria than in freeze-thawed disrupted mitochondria. ADP-stimulated depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential was also inhibited by ABA. Our results indicate that ABA interacts more specifically with the ANT, resulting in functional inhibition of the translocator with consequent impairment of mitochondrial bioenergetics. This effect could be involved in the ABA toxicity to hepatocytes.Toxicology in Vitro 02/2012; 26(1):51-6. DOI:10.1016/j.tiv.2011.10.007 · 3.21 Impact Factor