Evaluation of Cuff-Induced Ischemia in the Lower Extremity by Magnetic Resonance Oximetry

Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology (Impact Factor: 16.5). 02/2010; 55(6):598-606. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2009.08.068
Source: PubMed


The aim of this study was to evaluate vascular function in the lower extremities by making direct time-course measurement of oxygen saturation in the femoral/popliteal arteries and veins during cuff-induced reactive hyperemia with magnetic resonance imaging-based oximetry.
Magnetic resonance imaging-based oximetry is a new calibration-free technique taking advantage of the paramagnetic nature of blood that depends on the volume fraction of deoxyhemoglobin in red blood cells.
We compared post-occlusive blood oxygenation time-course of femoral/popliteal vessels in: 1) young healthy subjects (YH) (n = 10; mean ankle-brachial index [ABI] 1.0 +/- 0.1, mean age 30 +/- 7 years); 2) peripheral arterial disease (PAD) patients (n = 12; mean ABI 0.6 +/- 0.1, mean age 71 +/- 9 years); and 3) age-matched healthy control subjects (AHC) (n = 8; mean ABI 1.1 +/- 0.1, mean age 68 +/- 9 years). Blood oxygenation was quantified at 3.0-T field strength with a field mapping pulse sequence yielding the magnetic susceptibility difference between blood in the vessels and surrounding muscle tissue from which the intravascular blood oxygen saturation is computed as %HbO(2).
Significantly longer washout time (42 +/- 16 s vs. 14 +/- 4 s; p < 0.0001) and lower upslope (0.60 +/- 0.20 %HbO(2)/s vs. 1.32 +/- 0.41 %HbO(2)/s; p = 0.0008) were observed for PAD patients compared with healthy subjects (YH and AHC combined). Furthermore, greater overshoot was observed in YH than in AHC (21 +/- 8 %HbO(2) vs. 10 +/- 5 %HbO(2); p = 0.0116).
Post-occlusive transient changes in venous blood oxygenation might provide a new measure of vascular competence, which was found to be reduced in subjects with abnormal ABI, manifesting in prolonged recovery during the early phase of hyperemia.

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Available from: Felix W Wehrli, Jan 09, 2015
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    • "Average washout time was slightly lower than previously reported in the femoral vein of young healthy subjects (17 ± 7 s), but upslope and overshoot were in agreement with prior results [10]. The lower washout time could be explained by the fact that the tourniquet system used in this study deflated much more quickly than that used in [10]. The resulting decrease in the resistance to arterial flow could potentially shorten the washout time. "
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    ABSTRACT: The function of the peripheral microvascular may be interrogated by measuring perfusion, tissue oxygen concentration, or venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) recovery dynamics following induced ischemia. The purpose of this work is to develop and evaluate a magnetic resonance (MR) technique for simultaneous measurement of perfusion, SvO2, and skeletal muscle T2*. Perfusion, Intravascular Venous Oxygen saturation, and T2* (PIVOT) is comprised of interleaved pulsed arterial spin labeling (PASL) and multi-echo gradient-recalled echo (GRE) sequences. During the PASL post-labeling delay, images are acquired with a multi-echo GRE to quantify SvO2 and T2* at a downstream slice location. Thus time-courses of perfusion, SvO2, and T2* are quantified simultaneously within a single scan. The new sequence was compared to separately measured PASL or multi-echo GRE data during reactive hyperemia in five young healthy subjects. To explore the impairment present in peripheral artery disease patients, five patients were evaluated with PIVOT. Comparison of PIVOT-derived data to the standard techniques shows that there was no significant bias in any of the time-course-derived metrics. Preliminary data show that PAD patients exhibited alterations in perfusion, SvO2, and T2* time-courses compared to young healthy subjects. Simultaneous quantification of perfusion, SvO2, and T2* is possible with PIVOT. Kinetics of perfusion, SvO2, and T2* during reactive hyperemia may help to provide insight into the function of the peripheral microvasculature in patients with PAD.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 08/2013; 15(1):70. DOI:10.1186/1532-429X-15-70 · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    • "The markers include parameters derived from post-occlusive blood flow velocity and oxygenation levels (HbO2) in the femoral vessels at high temporal resolution, and pulse-wave velocity for assessing the stiffness of the aortic arch. The method represents a significant improvement from the authors’ pilot study [27] where only HbO2 was monitored during reactive hyperemia to assess peripheral vascular reactivity. The present work also represents an initial step toward development of a tool for extrapolating clinical outcomes and predicting functional endpoints based on quantitative parameters. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate an integrated CMR method incorporating dynamic oximetry, blood flow and pulse-wave velocimetry to assess vascular reactivity in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) and healthy controls. Methods and results The study population consisted of young healthy subjects (YH, 30 ± 7 yrs, N = 19),PAD (71 ± 9 yrs, N = 38), and older healthy controls (OHC, 68 ± 9 yrs, N = 43). Peripheral vascular reactivity was evaluated with two methods, time-resolved quantification of blood flow velocity and oxygenation level in the femoral artery and vein, respectively, performed simultaneously both at rest and hyperemia. Aortic stiffness was assessed via pulse-wave velocity. Oximetric data showed that compared to OHC, the time-course of the hemoglobin oxygen saturation in PAD patients had longer washout time (28.6 ± 1.2 vs 16.9 ± 1.1 s, p < 0.0001), reduced upslope (0.60 ± 0.1 vs 1.3 ± 0.08 HbO2/sec, p < 0.0001) and lower overshoot (8 ± 1.4 vs 14 ± 1.2 HbO2, p = 0.0064). PAD patients also had longer-lasting antegrade femoral artery flow during hyperemia (51 ± 2.1 vs 24 ± 1.8 s, p < 0.0001), and reduced peak-to-baseline flow rate (3.1 ± 0.5 vs 7.4 ± 0.4, p < 0.0001). Further, the pulsatility at rest was reduced (0.75 ± 0.32 vs 5.2 ± 0.3, p < 0.0001), and aortic PWV was elevated (10.2 ± 0.4 vs 8.1 ± 0.4 m/s, p = 0.0048). Conclusion The proposed CMR protocol quantifies multiple aspects of vascular reactivity and represents an initial step toward development of a potential tool for evaluating interventions, extrapolating clinical outcomes and predicting functional endpoints based on quantitative parameters.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 02/2013; 15(1):17. DOI:10.1186/1532-429X-15-17 · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    • "In the U.S., the number of adults affected by peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is as large as 8 million [1], and in Korea, 4.4% (50/1,150) is reported [2] in elderly men (≥65), a number expected to rise as the elderly population grows. Individuals with PAD have a three- to four-fold increased risk of cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality compared to individuals without PAD [1]. Early detection of PAD allows the implementation of an effective treatment, which has been shown to reduce the morbid-mortality of cardiovascular patients. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate screening methods in the lower extremities by measurement of the digital pulse oximetry (oxygen percent saturation [SpO(2)]) of toes for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). A prospective study was performed among 49 patients (98 limbs) with lower extremity arterial occlusive disease. We attempted to measure the ankle-brachial index (ABI), digital pulse oximetry (SpO(2)), and computerized tomographic angiography (CTA). Patients were divided into three groups by the traditional Fontaine classification system by symptom and CTA criteria: 1) Critical limb ischemia (Fontaine III and IV), 2) Claudication; (Fontaine II), and 3) asymptomatic limbs (Fontaine I). The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values between active treatment groups (group I and II; endovascular and open surgery) and conservative group (group III) are all statistically significant. ABI; 55.09%, 94%, 96.7%, 39.02% (R = 12.54, P < 0.000) SpO(2); 87.06%, 87.8%, 84.3%, 90% (R = 40.11, P < 0.000). Pre-SpO(2) and pre-ABI all show statistically significant correlation in group I vs. group II, symptomatic PAD (group I and II) vs. asymptomatic PAD (group III), and the total PAD comparison. The Pearson's correlation coefficient between SpO(2) and ABI all show significant correlation in group II. Pre-SpO(2) vs. Pre-ABI show strong positive correlation except asymptomatic group (group III). Digital pulse oximetry can be a useful, simple, noninvasive screening device as well as ABI in PAD.
    02/2012; 82(2):94-100. DOI:10.4174/jkss.2012.82.2.94
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