High-intensity Focused Ultrasound: Ready for Primetime

Division of Urology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, 12631 East 17th Avenue, Mailstop C302, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.
Urologic Clinics of North America (Impact Factor: 1.2). 02/2010; 37(1):27-35, Table of Contents. DOI: 10.1016/j.ucl.2009.11.010
Source: PubMed


Prostate cancer (CaP) is the second most common cause of cancer deaths in the United States and the incidence of CaP has remained constant at 165 cases per 100,000 men. Since 1990, the age-adjusted death rate has decreased by 31%. In this article, the authors review the current literature on the experimental therapy for HIFU. The HIFU technique, its mechanism of action, patient selection, current efficacy studies, complications, follow-up after HIFU treatment, and future developments are discussed.

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Available from: Kyle O Rove, Feb 25, 2014
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    • "The volume of destroyed tissue within the focal region, resulted from bioeffects of thermal ablation and cavitation, is referred to as a ''lesion''. HIFU has become a potential alternative to conventional therapies for primary and metastatic tumors, especially for those patients who are not suitable candidates for surgical resection due to certain criteria, such as old age, poor health condition, multiple tumors, tumor size, or tumor location with respect to a key vessel [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6]. HIFU has many advantages including being non-invasive, having a large penetration depth, lower operating cost, superior selectiveness and easier power control when compared with other physical methods for tissue ablation, such as lasers, microwaves or radio frequency (RF) fields. "
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    ABSTRACT: An integrated computational framework was developed in this study for modeling high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) thermal ablation. The temperature field was obtained by solving the bioheat transfer equation (BHTE) through the finite element method; while, the thermal lesion was considered as a denatured material experiencing phase transformation and modeled with the latent heat. An equivalent attenuation coefficient, which considers the temperature-dependent properties of the target material and the ultrasound diffraction due to bubbles, was proposed in the nonlinear thermal transient analysis. Finally, a modified thermal dose formulation was proposed to predict the lesion size, shape and location. In-vitro thermal ablation experiments on transparent tissue phantoms at different energy levels were carried out to validate this computational framework. The temperature histories and lesion areas from the proposed model show good correlation with those from the in-vitro experiments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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