Mitochondrial control of caspase-dependent and -independent cell death
ABSTRACT Mitochondria control whether a cell lives or dies. The role mitochondria play in deciding the fate of a cell was first identified in the mid-1990s, because mitochondria-enriched fractions were found to be necessary for activation of death proteases, the caspases, in a cell-free model of apoptotic cell death. Mitochondrial involvement in apoptosis was subsequently shown to be regulated by Bcl-2, a protein that was known to contribute to cancer in specific circumstances. The important role of mitochondria in promoting caspase activation has therefore been a major focus of apoptosis research; however, it is also clear that mitochondria contribute to cell death by caspase-independent mechanisms. In this review, we will highlight recent findings and discuss the mechanism underlying the mitochondrial control of apoptosis and caspase-independent cell death.
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ABSTRACT: Over the past years, knowledge and evidence about the existence of crosstalks between cellular organelles and their potential effects on survival or cell death have been constantly growing. More recently, evidence accumulated showing an intimate relationship between endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. These close contacts not only establish extensive physical links allowing exchange of lipids and calcium but they can also coordinate pathways involved in cell life and death. It is now obvious that ER dysfunction/stress and Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) as well as mitochondria play major roles in apoptosis. However, while the effects of major ER stress on cell death have been largely studied and reviewed, it becomes more and more evident that cells might regularly deal with sublethal ER stress, a condition that does not necessarily lead to cell death but might affect the function/activity of other organelles such as mitochondria. In this review, we will particularly focus on these new, interesting and intriguing metabolic and morphological events that occur during the early adaptative phase of the ER stress, before the onset of cell death, and that remain largely unknown. Relevance and implication of these mitochondrial changes in response to ER stress conditions for human diseases such as type II diabetes and Alzheimer's disease will also be considered. J. Cell. Physiol. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Journal of Cellular Physiology 09/2013; 228(9). DOI:10.1002/jcp.24360 · 3.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Demonstration of features of a programmed cell death (PCD) pathway in protozoan parasites initiated a great deal of interest and debate in the field of molecular parasitology. Several of the markers typical of mammalian apoptosis have been shown in Leishmania which suggested the existence of an apoptosis like death in these organisms. However, studies to elucidate the downstream events associated with phosphotidyl serine exposure, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release, and caspase-like activities in cells undergoing such cell death remain an ongoing challenge. Recent advances in genome sequencing, chemical biology should help to solve some of these challenges. Leishmania genetic mutants that lack putative regulators/effectors of PCD pathway should not only help to demonstrate the mechanisms of PCD but also provide tools to better understand the putative role for this pathway in population control and in the establishment of a successful infection of the host.Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology 07/2012; 2:95. DOI:10.3389/fcimb.2012.00095 · 2.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Demethoxycurcumin (DMC; a curcumin-related demethoxy compound) has been recently shown to display antioxidant and antitumor activities. It has also produced a potent chemopreventive action against cancer. In the present study, the antiproliferation (using the MTT assay, DMC was found to have cytotoxic activities against GBM 8401 cell with IC(50) values at 22.71 μM) and induced apoptosis effects of DMC have been investigated in human brain malignant glioma GBM 8401 cells. We have studied the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), DNA fragmentation, caspase activation, and NF-κB transcriptional factor activity. By these approaches, our results indicated that DMC has produced an inhibition of cell proliferation as well as the activation of apoptosis in GBM 8401 cells. Both effects were observed to increase in proportion with the dosage of DMC treatment, and the apoptosis was induced by DMC in human brain malignant glioma GBM 8401 cells via mitochondria- and caspase-dependent pathways.Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 02/2012; 2012:396573. DOI:10.1155/2012/396573 · 2.18 Impact Factor