Minichromosome stability induced by partial genome duplication in Arabidopsis thaliana.
ABSTRACT Two partially reconstructed karyotypes (RK1 and RK2) of Arabidopsis thaliana have been established from a transformant, in which four structurally changed chromosomes (alpha, beta, gamma, and delta) were involved. Both karyotypes are composed of 12 chromosomes, 2n = 1" + 3" + 4" + 5" + alpha" + gamma" = 12 for RK1 and 2n = 3" + 4" + 5" + alpha" + beta" + gamma" = 12 for RK2, and these chromosome constitutions were relatively stable at least for three generations. Pairing at meiosis was limited to the homologues (1, 3, 4, 5, alpha, beta, or gamma), and no pairing occurred among non-homologous chromosomes in both karyotypes. For minichromosome alpha (mini alpha), precocious separation at metaphase I was frequently observed in RK2, as found for other minichromosomes, but was rare in RK1. This stable paring of mini alpha was possibly caused by duplication of the terminal tip of chromosome 1 that is characteristic of RK1.
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ABSTRACT: Minichromosomes have been extensively used as tools for revealing the functional structures of eukaryotic chromosomes. However, the definition of a minichromosome is still ambiguous. Based on previous reports on various eukaryotes, minichromosomes are defined here to be chromosomes that are smaller than one third the size of the smallest chromosome in the given species. In Arabidopsis thaliana, therefore, chromosomes <8.5 Mb in length are classified as minichromosomes, although to date only six different minichromosomes have been found or created, probably due to their extremely small sizes that limit detection. Minichromosomes vary from 1.7 to 8.4 Mb in length and are much shorter than authentic chromosomes (25.3 to 38.0 Mb). Linear and circular minichromosomes have been identified, and both types are maintained as experimental lines. Most of the circular, ring-shaped minichromosomes in Arabidopsis are relatively stable at mitosis and transmissible to the next generation, regardless of the centromere form (dicentric or monocentric). Recently, a ring minichromosome was artificially generated by a combination of the Cre/LoxP and Ac/Ds systems. This artificial ring chromosome, AtARC1, has several advantages over the previously reported minichromosomes as a chromosome vector; therefore, this method of generating artificial ring chromosomes is expected to be improved for application to other plant species including important crops.Chromosome Research 05/2014; · 3.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A dicentric ring minichromosome (miniδ) was identified in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana and added to a wild type as a supernumerary chromosome. This line is relatively stable and has been maintained for generations, notwithstanding its ring and dicentric structure. To determine the mechanism for stable transmission of miniδ, the structure and behavior of two new types of ring minichromosomes (miniδ1 and miniδ1-1) derived from miniδ were investigated. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed that miniδ1 is dicentric just like miniδ, whereas miniδ1-1 is monocentric. The estimated sizes of miniδ1 and miniδ1-1 were 3.8~5.0 and 1.7 Mb, respectively. The sizes of the two centromeres on miniδ1 were identical (ca. 270 kb) and similar to that of miniδ1-1 (ca. 250 kb). Miniδ1 was relatively stable during mitosis and meiosis, as is miniδ, whereas miniδ1-1 was unstable during mitosis, and the number of minichromosomes per cell varied. This possibly resulted from misdivision caused by a short centromere on monocentric miniδ1-1. Transmission through the female was quite limited for all three ring minichromosomes (0-3.2%), whereas that through the male was relatively high (15.4-27.3%) compared with that of other supernumerary chromosomes in Arabidopsis. Ring structure without telomeres itself seems not to limit the female transmission.Chromosome Research 11/2011; 19(8):999-1012. · 3.47 Impact Factor