Direct myocardial implantation of human fetal stem cells in heart failure patients: long-term results.
ABSTRACT End-stage heart failure (HF) is refractory to current standard medical therapy, and the number of donor hearts is insufficient to meet the demand for transplantation. Recent studies suggest autologous stem cell therapy may regenerate cardiomyocytes, stimulate neovascularization, and improve cardiac function and clinical status. Although human fetal-derived stem cells (HFDSCs) have been studied for the treatment of a variety of conditions, no clinical studies have been reported to date on their use in treating HF. We sought to determine the efficacy and safety of HFDSC treatment in HF patients.
Direct myocardial transplantation of HFDSCs by open-chest surgical procedure was performed in 10 patients with HF due to nonischemic, nonchagasic dilated cardiomyopathy. Before and after the procedure, and with no changes in their preoperative doses of medications (digoxin, furosemide, spironolactone, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, betablockers), patients were assessed for New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, performance in the exercise tolerance test (ETT), ejection fraction (EF), left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVEDD) via transthoracic echocardiography, performance in the 6-minute walk test, and performance in the Minnesota congestive HF test. All 10 patients survived the operation. One patient had a stroke 3 days after the procedure, and although she later recovered, she was unable to perform the follow-up tests. Another male patient experienced pericardial effusion 3 weeks after the procedure. Although it resolved spontaneously, the patient abandoned his control tests and died 5 months after the procedure. An autopsy of the myocardium suggested that new young cells were present in the cardiomyocyte mix. At 40 months, the mean (+/-SD) NYHA class decreased from 3.4 +/- 0.5 to 1.33 +/- 0.5 (P = .001); the mean EF increased 31%, from 26.6% +/- 4% to 34.8% +/- 7.2% (P = .005); and the mean ETT increased 291.3%, from 4.25 minutes to 16.63 minutes (128.9% increase in metabolic equivalents, from 2.46 to 5.63) (P < .0001); the mean LVEDD decreased 15%, from 6.85 +/- 0.6 cm to 5.80 +/- 0.58 cm (P < .001); mean performance in the 6-minute walk test increased by 43.2%, from 251 +/- 113.1 seconds to 360 +/- 0 seconds (P = .01); the mean distance increased 64.4%, from 284.4 +/- 144.9 m to 468.2 +/- 89.8 m (P = .004); and the mean result in the Minnesota test decreased from 71 +/- 27.3 to 6 +/- 5.9 (P < .001).
Although these initial findings suggest direct myocardial implantation of HFDSCs is feasible and improves cardiac function in HF patients at 40 months, more clinical research is required to confirm these observations.
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ABSTRACT: Dilated cardiomyopathy is the most frequent etiology of non-ischemic heart failure. In a majority of cases the causal mechanism is unknown, giving rise to the term 'idiopathic' dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM). Major pathological derangements include patchy interstitial fibrosis, degenerated cardiomyocytes, and dilatation of the cardiac chambers, but recent evidence suggests that disease progression may also have the signature of cardiac endothelial dysfunction. As we better understand the molecular basis of IDCM, novel therapeutic approaches, mainly gene transfer and cell-based therapies, are being explored. Cells with regenerative potential have been extensively tested in cardiac diseases of ischemic origin in both pre-clinical and clinical settings. However, whether cell therapy has any clinical value in IDCM patients is still being evaluated. This article is a concise summary of cell therapy studies for IDCM, with a focus on recent advances that highlight the vascular potential exhibited by umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCBMSCs). We also provide an overview of cardiac vasculature as a key regulator of subjacent myocardial integrity and function, and discuss the potential mechanisms of UCBMSC amelioration of IDCM myocardium. Consideration of these issues shows that these cells are conceivably new therapeutic agents for this complex and elusive human disorder.International Journal of Cardiology 10/2014; · 6.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite the development of novel therapeutic strategies, cardiovascular diseases remain the main cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Many phase 1 and 2 clinical trials have reported the safety, feasibility and promising potential of stem cell transplantation, however, the optimal cell types, timing of infusion, cell dosage and routes of administration remain to be determined. This paper reviews the findings of various clinical studies and discusses the challenges facing the delivery of stem cell therapy in cardiovascular diseases.The Journal of international medical research 06/2012; 40(3):833-8. · 1.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is the most common form of nonischemic cardiomyopathy worldwide and can lead to sudden cardiac death and heart failure. Despite ongoing advances made in the treatment of DCM, improvement of outcome remains problematic. Stem cell therapy has been extensively studied in preclinical and clinical models of ischemic heart disease, showing potential benefit. DCM is associated with a major health burden, and few studies have been performed on cell therapy for DCM. In this systematic review we aimed to provide an overview of preclinical and clinical studies performed on cell therapy for DCM. A systematic search, critical appraisal, and summarized outcomes are presented. In total, 29 preclinical and 15 clinical studies were included. Methodologic quality of reported studies in general was low based on the Centre for Evidence Based Medicine, Oxford University, criteria. A large heterogeneity in inclusion criteria, procedural characteristics, and outcome measures was noted. The majority of studies showed a significant increase in left ventricular ejection fraction after cell therapy during follow-up. Stem cell therapy has shown moderate but significant effects in clinical trials for ischemic heart disease, but it remains to be determined if we can extrapolate these results to DCM patients. There is a need for methodologically sound studies to elucidate underlying mechanisms and translate those into improved therapy for clinical practice. To validate safety and efficacy of cell therapy for DCM, adequate randomized (placebo) controlled trials using different strategies are mandatory.Journal of cardiac failure 07/2013; 19(7):494-502. · 3.07 Impact Factor