A fluorescent investigation of subcellular damage in H9c2 cells caused by pavetamine, a novel polyamine
Food, Feed and Veterinary Public Health Programme, Agricultural Research Council-Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Private Bag X5, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa. Toxicology in Vitro
(Impact Factor: 2.9).
02/2010; 24(4):1258-65. DOI: 10.1016/j.tiv.2010.02.002
Gousiekte, which can be translated literally as "quick disease", is one of the six most important plant toxicoses that affect livestock in South Africa. It is a plant-induced cardiomyopathy of domestic ruminants characterised by the sudden death of animals within a period of 4-8weeks after the initial ingestion of the toxic plant. The main ultrastructural change in sheep hearts is degradation of myofibres. In this study, fluorescent probes were used to investigate subcellular changes induced by pavetamine, the toxic compound that causes gousiekte, in H9c2 cells. The sarcoplasmic reticula (SR) and mitochondria showed abnormalities that were not present in the control cells. The lysosomes of treated cells were more abundant and enlarged than those of the control cells. There was increased activity of cytosolic hexosaminidase and acid phosphatase, indicating increased lysosomal membrane permeability. Lysosomes play an important role in both necrosis and apoptosis. The degradation of the myofibres may be a consequence of the increased lysosomal membrane permeability. Pavetamine was also found to cause alterations in the organisation of F-actin. F-actin in the nucleus is a transcription regulator and can therefore influence protein synthesis. Actin filament organisation also regulates the cardiac L-type Ca(2+) channels. Fluorescent staining demonstrated that pavetamine may damage a number of organelles, all of which can influence the proper functioning of the heart.
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