Data from the British Columbia Linked Health Database were analyzed to determine if size of hospital is associated with in-hospital death of critically ill adults whose admitting diagnosis is congestive heart failure (CHF). Patients who were <19 years of age, transferred from or to other hospitals, or who developed CHF as a complication were excluded. In unadjusted logistic regression analysis of 2616 patients, the odds ratio (OR) for in-hospital death associated with a doubling of the number of hospital beds was 1.12 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03-1.23; P = .01). After adjustment for age, sex, CHF-specific comorbidity index, number of cardiac and noncardiac procedures, number of hospital admissions for CHF in the preceding year, and socioeconomic variables, the OR was 1.08 (95% CI = 0.96-1.20; P = .21). The conclusion is that the adjusted rate of in-hospital deaths for this patient group does not differ significantly based solely on the number of acute hospital beds.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to develop a clinical model predictive of in-hospital mortality in a broad hospitalized heart failure (HF) patient population.
Heart failure patients experience high rates of hospital stays and poor outcomes. Although predictors of mortality have been identified in HF clinical trials, hospitalized patients might differ greatly from trial populations, and such predictors might underestimate mortality in a real-world population.
The OPTIMIZE-HF (Organized Program to Initiate Lifesaving Treatment in Hospitalized Patients with Heart Failure) is a registry/performance improvement program for patients hospitalized with HF in 259 U.S. hospitals. Forty-five potential predictor variables were used in a stepwise logistic regression model for in-hospital mortality. Continuous variables that did not meet linearity assumptions were transformed. All significant variables (p < 0.05) were entered into multivariate analysis. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for the correlation of data within the same hospital in the adjusted models.
Of 48,612 patients enrolled, mean age was 73.1 years, 52% were women, 74% were Caucasian, and 46% had ischemic etiology. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 0.39 +/- 0.18. In-hospital mortality occurred in 1,834 (3.8%). Multivariable predictors of mortality included age, heart rate, systolic blood pressure (SBP), sodium, creatinine, HF as primary cause of hospitalization, and presence/absence of left ventricular systolic dysfunction. A scoring system was developed to predict mortality.
Risk of in-hospital mortality for patients hospitalized with HF remains high and is increased in patients who are older and have low SBP or sodium levels and elevated heart rate or creatinine at admission. Application of this risk-prediction algorithm might help identify patients at high risk for in-hospital mortality who might benefit from aggressive monitoring and intervention.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 07/2008; 52(5):347-56. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2008.04.028 · 16.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe the clinical management of acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) in patients receiving intravenous treatment with dobutamine, milrinone, or nesiritide, and to evaluate differences, based on treatment received, in the in-hospital mortality rate, length of stay (LOS), total health care costs, and 30-day hospital readmission rate.
Retrospective cohort analysis.
University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC) Clinical Database Pharmacy, a database with information from 32 academic hospitals.
Two thousand one hundred thirty patients with ADHF who received dobutamine (1311 patients), milrinone (433), or nesiritide (386).
Patients with ADHF were categorized according to the vasoactive therapy received. To evaluate baseline characteristics, chi(2) analysis was used; logistic regression was employed to assess the relationships between drug therapy and in-hospital mortality rates, and multivariate linear regression was used to assess whether drug therapy was related to LOS and total health care costs. All regression analyses controlled for age, sex, race, region of the United States where the hospital was located, primary payer for the hospital stay, UHC patient severity class, and chronic renal failure. In-hospital mortality rates were 10.2%, 7.9%, and 2.9% in the dobutamine, milrinone, and nesiritide groups, respectively. This resulted in an adjusted odds ratio for death of 3.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8-6.8) for dobutamine and 3.9 (95% CI 1.8-8.3) for milrinone (p<0.0001). Compared with inotropic therapy (dobutamine and milrinone), mean LOS in the hospital and the intensive care unit were lower with nesiritide (p<0.001). Total health care costs were lowest with nesiritide, but this reached statistical significance only when compared with milrinone (p<0.001). Thirty-day hospital readmission rates with dobutamine, milrinone, and nesiritide were 5.0%, 9.5%, and 3.9%, respectively (p=NS).
Nesiritide therapy was associated with a lower in-hospital mortality rate and shorter LOS compared with dobutamine and milrinone. In addition, total health care costs with nesiritide were decreased compared with milrinone. These observations need to be validated by a randomized controlled trial.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to develop a prospectively applicable method for classifying comorbid conditions which might alter the risk of mortality for use in longitudinal studies. A weighted index that takes into account the number and the seriousness of comorbid disease was developed in a cohort of 559 medical patients. The 1-yr mortality rates for the different scores were: "0", 12% (181); "1-2", 26% (225); "3-4", 52% (71); and "greater than or equal to 5", 85% (82). The index was tested for its ability to predict risk of death from comorbid disease in the second cohort of 685 patients during a 10-yr follow-up. The percent of patients who died of comorbid disease for the different scores were: "0", 8% (588); "1", 25% (54); "2", 48% (25); "greater than or equal to 3", 59% (18). With each increased level of the comorbidity index, there were stepwise increases in the cumulative mortality attributable to comorbid disease (log rank chi 2 = 165; p less than 0.0001). In this longer follow-up, age was also a predictor of mortality (p less than 0.001). The new index performed similarly to a previous system devised by Kaplan and Feinstein. The method of classifying comorbidity provides a simple, readily applicable and valid method of estimating risk of death from comorbid disease for use in longitudinal studies. Further work in larger populations is still required to refine the approach because the number of patients with any given condition in this study was relatively small.
Journal of Chronic Diseases 02/1987; 40(5):373-83. DOI:10.1016/0021-9681(87)90171-8
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